Erenlai - Building communities 族群重建
Building communities 族群重建

Building communities 族群重建

 

The materials here explore how community frontiers and boundaries are being reshaped in Asia, at local and international levels.

從山巔到海濱,從語言到文化,亞洲族群靠著不同的力量逐步重建。在這條未知的旅程上,有許多值得分享的智慧與動力。

 

Friday, 01 November 2013

Yi Studies on the Move

In 1995, a group of scholars, from the Yi and Han nationalities as well as from a few countries outside China, gathered at University of Washington in Seattle, at the initiative of Professor Stevan Harrell.

Friday, 09 November 2012

Brain Food?

Imagine a service designed to help you acquire knowledge in the most efficient way possible. It goes straight to the source and organizes information in a clear, concise fashion that serves you key ideas from the titans of knowledge, bedrock concepts from various disciplines, as well as highly specialized interests, on a silver platter.

In short, that is Knowledge Buffet (KB). But the promise and potential of what you could find on www.knowledge-buffet.com in the future is even more exciting. Not only a platform for creating a customized program for your personal learning, but a more effective approach to constructing university courses or setting up multidisciplinary research.

We live in an age of informational overload. There is a reason why they say “knowledge is power” rather than “information is power.” It is because you have to sort through this information to arrive at the final station of actual knowledge. And as almost any student will tell you, this is not fun.

Almost everything you can think of is available online today. Information is largely free and readily accessible pretty much anywhere. And we can’t handle it. It is not about information; it is about the exact piece of the puzzle that you need. Anyone who has ever spent hours googling away like someone with OCGD (Obsessive Compulsive Google Disorder) knows exactly what I’m talking about. And this beast of a haystack is only getting that much bigger every day.

Did you think time was the only thing you spent during all those frenetic online searches? Think again, because whether you know it or it, you’re squandering ATTENTION as well. Any information requires some amount of attention and when you add up all those 30 second YouTube videos…death by a thousand cuts or a thousand bite-sized meals or a thousand tweets or…

Sometimes procrastination can be your worst enemy, so there appears to be a genuine need for a more effective way to find information and not only find it, but if possible, arrange it, sort it out and generally pre-digest it for goal-driven easy use.

I know what I’m talking about because long ago, during the dark ages of my university studies, this seemed to be an unattainable dream. Instead of peeling off layers of human understanding and the secrets of the universe to eventually add my shred off insight into the blend, I spent my time looking for a particular chapter from a particular book.

This experience is really the motivation that stands behind the creation of Knowledge Buffet and the desire to get rid of all the unnecessary clutter so that you can focus on what matters. It is imperative in any field to have solid basics, but wasting time and attention on figuring out what the basics are and where to find them is counterproductive.

Customization is the word of the future. Software and hardware today is inevitably speeding towards highly personal use. Finding the optimal way to acquire knowledge for any individual is what KB represents, whether it is designing a homeschooling curriculum, preparing for any type of exam, mastering foreign languages or simply helping you find your dream university major.

Tuesday, 22 November 2011

關懷都會原住民 ─ 維多利亞原住民友誼中心

 

 

第六站 - 溫哥華島 - 維多利亞市 - 維多利亞原住民友誼中心 (Victoria Aboriginal Friendship Centre, VAFC)

維多利亞原住民友誼中心是一座特別為了遠離家鄉來到都市生活的原住民所設立的慈善機構,目標是全面性的關懷,包括文化傳承和社會服務,也提供健康、教育、休閒,以及家庭的照顧。由於台灣的都市裡也有為數不少的原住民人口,我們參訪團隊的學生們也能藉此看到第一民族如何在都市環境中維持保存原鄉的認同。他們是否在都會裡做到傳承甚至復興了傳統文化呢?都市裡的原住民所受到的關懷和台灣相比又是如何呢?

「維多利亞原住民友誼中心是一個類似社工服務的單位,此中心有針對不同階段之第一民族常碰到的問題加以輔導協助。例如:婦女嬰孩輔導課程,教導新手媽媽如何教養孩子,避免其被政府認定沒有教養能力,導致孩子被強制帶離由政府教養;青少年之家,也就是小時候被強制帶離父母身邊,成年後回歸社會的第一民族青年,此友誼中心即提供他們一個彼此鼓勵成長的家;另外還有對長者的陪伴與照顧工作。此中心十分重視第一民族成員對自身的認同及彼此間的連結,不讓任何一人有自暴自棄的機會,令人感動。同時,政府也提供很好的管道,讓此中心可以申請需要的補助;而中心負責人也提到,其經費來源大多來自社會大眾捐贈,可見加拿大人對於第一民族的友善。這是台灣原住民族、社會大眾及政府應當學習的地方。」

── 邱婕 Ibu Isliduan - 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系四年級 - 布農族

 

「在維多利亞原住民友誼中心接待我們的Mr. Bruce Parisian,便提到保留地原住民從部落到城市工作的艱辛歷程,這何嘗不是台灣都會原住民遇到的問題?我們的政府因都市更新將城市內的部落強制拆除,對此我們要如何因應?此中心是由不到十位的都會原住民創立,他們在一間不到十坪的辦公室,自發性地寫企畫、向民間團體與政府單位申請經費,在一番努力之下,政府與民間團體紛紛願意投資合作,我覺得這樣的耕耘相當值得借鏡。」

── 陳平 Rimuy Watan - 陽明大學臨床暨社區組碩士班二年級 - 泰雅族

 

「當位置來到維多利亞的原住民友誼中心,對方非常友善迎接我們。先是介紹門口的圖騰,再以座談會的方式使我們瞭解他們為了什麼事情努力。聽到加拿大有兩百多個一樣的地方,不禁想到台灣有沒有這樣的可能?我認為我們自身應該主動去關心原住民相關議題,從加國回來發現當地的第一民族與台灣的原住民族比起來,他們存在感多得多。然而,台灣的原住民族在台灣也有一定的存在感,只是每個人認知不一樣。或許我們被某些人小小的忽視,但不代表沒有人關心過我們。撇開存在感不談,就一個城市的空間來說,有多少東西會象徵出它是有原住民存在的地方?台灣有,只是相較於鄧肯市,便顯得相當薄弱。我們應否去省思這樣的問題,台灣的原住民到底有沒有被尊重?而不是在提到自身的時候,就像提到外國人一樣,不清楚也不明瞭。」

── 林哲玄 Utun Titi - 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系四年級 - 太魯閣族

 

Filmed and edited by C. Phiv, subtitled by Vica Zhuhan

Photos: Top: Richard Chen Down: Shu-ching Hsueh

Tuesday, 22 November 2011

原住民醫療的全球視野 ─ 維多利亞大學原住民衛生研究中心

第五站 - 溫哥華島 - 維多利亞大學 原住民衛生研究中心 (Centre for Aboriginal Health Research, CAHR)

維多利亞大學是一所研究型大學,被公認為原住民研究的標竿,和原住民部落與不同領域的相關學者都保持著密切良好的關係。原住民衛生研究中心建立於2008年,致力於原民衛生研究的進行與推展,與當地和全球的原住民人士共同合作以改善他們的健康問題。目前為全球原住民衛生研究的首要機構之一,定期舉辦國際專題討論和研討會

此次訪問給了我們絕佳的機會去了解加拿大的原住民健康問題,藉由參考他們當地的問題、研究,和解決辦法,與台灣和全球相較,我們更能深入探討全球原住民共通關連的議題,以及需要什麼政策來對抗難題。

當我們抵達研究中心的時候,迎接我們的是幾位學者和博士生。研究中心的負責人首先向我們介紹了中心的總體任務,接著由各位學者一一說明他們正在進行的研究以及在各個地區的發現:像是不同部落間自殺率的差異、嘗試將傳統治療與西方醫學系統結合,和文化傳承與原住民身心健康的關連性等。

中國讀者請點以下連結:

「加拿大為了原住民健康問題設置了中央級的研究院,台灣的中研院卻沒有這樣的安排,我覺得相當可惜。目前的研究似乎缺乏較大型、完整的計畫,對於改善台灣原住民的健康問題也無太大的幫助。當我看到這種不足,同時也看到了未來可以付出和努力的方向。」

── 陳平 Rimuy Watan - 陽明大學臨床暨社區護理研究所碩士班二年級 - 泰雅族

「在維多利亞大學的公共衛生研究中心,我向其中一名與會教授問及,加拿大原住民自殺比例是否高過非原住民?他的答案是肯定的。他認為造成這個現象的原因,絕大部分是出自加拿大原住民在都市謀生需面臨極大壓力;他也說在他輔導過的個案中,對自我族群認同越高者,通常較不會有輕生念頭。我也相信『認同是可以改變的』這一句話。」

── 陳至宏 Gyusi Meihua - 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系三年級 - 泰雅族

 

 

「我發現台灣和加拿大在公共衛生方面所面臨的問題非常的類似,處理的方法卻不一樣。例如:加拿大的部落也正面臨著醫師資源的缺乏,一開始他們也採用類似『醫事人員養成計畫』的政策,但因為發現成效不佳,實際上最後回到部落服務的醫事人員並沒有增加,因此放棄此計畫。我們熱烈討論了其中的原因。另外,也談到健保制度。加拿大也採用全民健保,雖然每個人繳的健保費差不多,但是都市與部落所享用到的醫療資源有著極大的差距,這衍生出公平問題。兩國似乎都還沒有能夠成功解決此問題的方式。如何公平的讓每個人都能得到合理公平待遇的醫療照護,也還是個待解決的問題。」

── 李慕凡Wilang Watah - 陽明大學醫學系四年級 - 泰雅族

「在維多利亞大學公共衛生研究中心裡,我們討論有關原住民就業、教育等議題。當他們談論到『應該要教育非第一民族族群,學會如何用第一民族的角度及思維來尊重或是幫助他們』,這是很值得學習之處。」
── 邵慧君 Gagai - 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系四年級 - 排灣族
「來到維多利亞大學公共衛生研究中心,印象深刻的是,有一個研究生論文題目是關於部落傳統醫療和現代醫術之平衡。原住民早期部落就有傳統醫療管理人民的身心健康,巫師、祭師扮演很重要的角色,他們是人民的醫師、諮商師,藉由傳統規範去運作,加上一些科學無法解釋的醫療現象,無形中鞏固了整個部落的運作。直到殖民者到來,介入部落原有的醫療體系,並以歐洲主流觀點去看待、干涉,傳統醫療的瓦解帶來部落間的規範失衡,更使許多人開始質疑自己的文化的價值。」
── 溫彧青 Labi - 國立東華大學族群關係與文化學系四年級 - 阿美族

「由於我的專業領域是護理,起先在整理加拿大有關『傳統醫療與現代醫療結合』的相關議題,發現他們為了尊重原住民文化中的傳統醫療,在進行現代醫療時仍會進行儀式。在這裡看見的不只是對文化的尊重,而是能藉由傳統儀式來安撫該個案的情緒及增加他的歸屬感。
以前在老家時,常常看見一位很少清醒的老先生,他每天幾乎都是早上清醒工作、晚上醉醺醺。我問過他為什麼那麼常喝酒,他回說:『以前不知道怎麼教小孩,導致現在小孩都不乖,有罪惡感。』連身為原住民的我,都會有這種類推性的主觀想法,更何況是非原住民族群的人。我們應該從事件中找出問題核心去深入瞭解,才可能撇清某行為中的意義,而非一昧的為某族群套上污名。我認為,惟有先對原住民文化有基本概念,次者瞭解環境與原住民認知的相互關係,才可以真正了解原住民的需求給予適當資源。」
── 羅秀英 Yubax Hayung - 台北護理健康大學護理系二年級 - 泰雅族



Filmed by Cerise Phiv, edited by Nick Coulson, subtitled by Yenching Chu

Photo by C. Phiv

Tuesday, 22 November 2011

站在文化巨人的肩上 ─ 英屬哥倫比亞大學第一民族學習中心

 

 

 

第四站 - 溫哥華 - 英屬哥倫比亞大學 第一民族學習中心

教育問題是目前全世界原住民運動的核心。除了介紹第一民族中心在促進原住民教育方面的角色,Rick Ouellet 和 Debra Martel也告訴我們,加拿大教育體制如何因應原住民的文化處境來運作,又有哪些政策、計畫成功地被執行。譬如英屬哥倫比亞省開創先例的政策─所有該省的教師都必須修習原住民研究課程。第一民族中心也正在一些原住民區域推展一項工作,讓想要獲得學位的人,能在他們畢業 後能夠回到他們的社區,且仍有足夠的就業機會。

中國讀者請點以下連結:

「在UBC裡的第一民族學習中心裡,擺設與建築物外觀均夾帶著第一民族的濃厚味道,但對我們來說那正是最真實、活用的教科書。教授說,畢業的 學生一定要有一個畢業成品,因為走出這個學習第一民族文化的地方,代表你學習到了自己的文化,那樣的意義多麼深重啊!... 再者,因我讀的學校是有著台灣第一所原住民族學院的大學,可是就跟上面的問題一樣,其實是相當薄弱的,只有一個院碑就象徵了民族學院似乎不夠。我們是不是 可以思考有甚麼更好的想法去裝置這樣一個學院,讓人家更看得到我們呢?」

── 林哲玄 Utun Titi - 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系四年級 - 太魯閣族

在民族學習中心的訪談對話中,我了解到第一民族的教育體制及福利制度,迥異於台灣將民族教育及一般教育分開執行,政府根據學 校或地方提出申請欲實施的民族教育,撥預算幫助實施。 整個行程裡,從自治、公衛、教育、文化產業行銷四個大方向,瞭解及探討加拿大第一民族。從中,我反思到台灣是個多元族群的社會,雖早已倡導尊重多元文化, 政府在制度上也給予原住民許多福利及補助,像是加分機制、推展鄉土文化教育、補助金等等,然而根據文獻資料顯示,仍未見良好績效。或許是因為政府用的是主 流文化思維在幫助原住民族群,卻很少以原住民族的文化思維、生活習性等立場去看待問題。例如中小學的教材裡,未曾出現任何原住民族相關知識,使得原住民孩 童在學習上因文化差異,顯得較主流族群孩童處於弱勢。在維多利亞大學公共衛生研究中心時,他們說:『現在你們年輕人就是一群很強大的力量。』這句話提醒 我,應該多重視原住民族的教育問題,特別是文化教育,這關係到一族群的消逝危機。

── 邵慧君 Gagai - 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系四年級 - 排灣族

這次參訪過程,不管是政府機構或民間組織,對方介紹的一開始一定是告知我們,現在所屬的土地是哪個部落及族群,這是很令 人感動的。加拿大稱原住民族為「First Nation (第一民族)」;台灣稱為原住民族(Indigenous),二者有異曲同工之妙。兩國都確認原住民族是該國原本抑或第一居住在此的民族,但在台灣我們何 時會談起土地的故事以及以前居住在此的民族?加拿大處處感受得到當地族人及友人對於土地的認同以及認識,令人動容。
── 陳睿哲 Yahu Kunaw - 國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系三年級 - 泰雅族

ubc_house_learning

 

Video filmed by C. Phiv and D. Chen, edited by N. Coulson, subtitled by Yenching Chu

Photos by C. Phiv

Monday, 30 May 2011

生科葡萄園的老工人:扈伯爾神父傳奇

葡萄園裡的老工人,用愛當肥料,灌溉出一株株豐碩的果實。就如同扈伯爾神父全心全力的付出,才有今日輔大生科系的枝繁葉茂。


Tuesday, 03 May 2011

永遠的弱勢守護者:聖若瑟的松喬老爹

來自地球另一端的松喬神父,在資源貧瘠的雲林虎尾創辦了聖若瑟醫院。他以院為家,無私奉獻五十年,就像一位親切的父親般,一直守護在窮人、弱勢和孩子身邊。

Tuesday, 15 March 2011

Teambuilding

We quite spontaneously equate “teambuilding” with “leadership.”  This might be a misperception. In the teambuilding process each team member is a team builder, and nothing can be achieved without the active participation of all people involved.  Both team spirit and the fruits of the project on which the team works belong to all those who participated in it.  You may say that in every collective project there are two things created at the same time: the work that is accomplished (a rocket, a magazine, a building, a new medication…) and the team that has produced the work.

However, it is true that, in every team, there are people whose specific service is to ensure the cohesion and wellbeing of the team as a human group. This is a service like another one, as can be the one of cooking, doing accounting or conducting research. Team builders are “leaders’ only in the sense that they empower each and every member to be one of the team builders, that they intuit where the difficulties come from, and invent ways to heal the body divided against itself when conflicts and misunderstandings occur.

The New Testament offers to us two figures of great team builders: Jesus and Paul.  Jesus did not create an “institution”, he shaped the men and women who were following him. But he shaped them as part of a living community. During his final march towards Jerusalem he was leading a group of disciples bitterly divided among themselves. They were quarrelling over who was the greatest among them. Dissensions linked to differences in background, political opinions and appreciation of the situation were obviously growing. During the Last Supper, Jesus shares the bread and the chalice with people who seem to feel confused, angry and bitter.

They will eventually unite, first around the absence of Jesus and then – decisively – around the Risen One. The Acts of the Apostles tell us how they creatively start to build a community with others, in the recollection of the example of teambuilding that Jesus gave them. Paul will continue such work, building local churches and exhorting them, often with tears, to conduct themselves in justice and charity, and to renounce everything that causes divisions.

May we likewise overcome our ego and its limitations, so as to all become the “living stones’ of the teams we work in, and – looking even farther – of an ever-growing human community.

Photo by B.V.

Monday, 30 November 2009

Socially Engaged Artists in Yogyakarta and Taipei

Before going travelling to Indonesia in September 2009, I had felt that I was loosing a lot of faith in the world of art which I was beginning to perceive as lofty, rhetorical, but generally detached from the masses. In a twist of fate, in Yogyakarta, Central Java, I stumbled across a treasure chest, and within it I discovered a group of socially conscious and politically concerned performance artists, called ’Performance Klub’. When hearing about their international Perfurbance#3 festival I was reinvigorated with enthusiasm for art. Inspired by the explosive activism I met in this country relatively new to political freedoms, I returned to Taipei in search of what similar manifestations I could find.

So what makes a socially engaged artist? How prevalent is social and political art in these two countries? What differences are there between socially engaged artists in Indonesia and Taiwan?
Socially engaged art can refer to social and political causes, social work or spiritual healing; it can be a way of empowering the disempowered and including the excluded and it can achieve radical and remarkable transformations through the use of creativity and social consciousness.

Yogyakarta

Two of the organisers of Performance Klub, Rachel Saraswati and Tim O’Donoghue, introduced me to a festival, Perfurbance#3, held in Yogyakarta.It was the most pure example I have come across of artists committing to a community in a time of great material and spiritual suffering and producing real benefits. It was touching to see a collaboration of artists from different cultures with different motivations coming together. Two of the performers at that festival, and one of the three couples which were formed in Bantul, are now living in Taiwan. I also caught up with Mickey Huang and Lewis Gesner three years after the event.

Taipei

In Taipei, I found people using film to bring attention to social and political issues. Alfie Chen established a group called ’Guerrilla Movies’, which at first was a way of allowing his work to exist and survive and of expressing social phenomena. Later on Guerrilla Movies started giving other first time directors the chance to have their work seen and to get some useful feedback. He refuses society’s pressure to give up one’s dreams and ideals. Also we show the young female director Pinti Chen’s documentary on domestic violence. Pinti and two of the interviewers in the film, Huang Yuling and Chen Rujun, students of National Taiwan University’s social work department, look back on the film and the project they undertook. Another student from the same department, Yang Zijie, reflects on the past movement to save Taipei’s Treasure Hill. He discusses the role the academics and ’artivists’ had and should have had in the movement as well as bringing up some of the difficulties and considerations artists must take when engaging themselves in social movements.

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Tuesday, 17 November 2009

Hope against all hopes

One thing that makes you desperate about the world is that problems, big and small, seem to remain around without ever being solved. Afghanistan makes Obama sleepless; the Middle East changes only for the worse; negotiations on climate change are protracted; bankers have gone back to their indecent bonuses; corruption and short-term interests are still hindering the shift towards sustainable development in most countries; Taiwan politics remains… well… Taiwan politics… and the list could go on indefinitely.

Of course, when you look more carefully at the picture you might feel a little less desperate. People easily forget the progresses already accomplished, the breakthrough having occurred in the past, and we all naturally focus on what is still going wrong. Even more important is the fact that most problems are not just fixed in one or two moves but require long-term, incremental adjustments. Nobody ever found a vaccine against cancer, but modes of treatments are indeed more sophisticated and successful than, say, fifteen years ago. Humankind had always been “muddling through”, and will presumably continue do so. “Muddling through” does not make for good movies plots (we go for decisive triumphs and crushing defeats), but constitutes the very substance of our everyday struggles.

As we enter Christmas time, we may be remembered that real progresses are often silent and discreet. They start from something that has changed within us and is communicated around, as a candle’s fire kindles other fires. Just for taking an example: for sure, negotiations on climate change are important, and we need new regulations. At the same time, if humankind is to overcome such challenge it will come from changes in consumption models, awareness of the challenges resulting in shifting behaviors, entrepreneurs’ commitment to shift to renewable, non polluting energies even if there is still some extra cost involved in such a move… These changes are actually already happening, just because concerned individuals and companies make them happen. Networks spread around knowledge and ideas, public opinion translates them into forces for change, and local leaders sometimes are able to mobilize whole communities.

Such outcome never comes automatically. It germinates within the hearts of individuals who have decided to take seriously the challenges to which they can practically respond, and who associate with like-minded people. As happens when we contemplate the Christmas manger, we are often moved by the very weakness of these individuals or local communities: the Pakistani village that transforms itself though micro-credit; Afghan women mobilizing against violence, as Irish women did a few decades ago; aboriginal communities struggling to maintain their identity and traditional setting… Paradoxically, their weakness becomes their strength, as it tells us something fundamental about human life: problems are not solved by problem-solvers; they must be tackled at their root thanks to a revolution from the heart.

(Photo by C. Phiv)

Saturday, 24 October 2009

慢慢来,比较快!

图片提供/黄盈豪
本文为节录,完整内容请见2009年11月号《人籁》论辨月刊


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原住民部落于八八水灾中受创严重,大水覆没家园,文化传承同样面临巨大考验。在舆论压力下,政府迅速展开一连串灾后重建计划,只是做得快未必表示做得好,面对艰困的重建路,或许我们需要思考另一种慢的艺术。
----------------------------------------

莫拉克水灾重创南台湾,受灾地区大多是原住民部落,或许目前媒体的关注已经退却,但仍有上千灾民安置在各个军事营区,面临家屋重建或是迁村的难题。从紧急救援到临时安置再到社区重建,整个复原过程可能至少需要五年,而在重建过程中,要怎么做,才能尊重原住民特殊的文化传统?


921经验:民间力量的重要性
笔者曾长期参与921部落重建工作,也曾以社工的角色参与七二水灾、四川震灾的救援与重建。从过去的经验看这次的救灾,笔者想呼吁跨文化的工作模式将是重建成败与否的重要关键,而不是政治力量的操纵或是大量的资源挹注。

以921灾后大安溪的泰雅族三叉坑部落重建为例,整个迁村过程花了超过六年才告完成。原住民部落跟平地社区很不一样,不只有复杂的土地问题,还有不一样的部落生态与文化。重建过程中,我们做社区工作的也在向部落学习,学习部落自有一套的步调和价值。当时因为政府和外来协力团队都在慢慢摸索重建的适当方法,部落组织又还在被培力的阶段,加上新部落盖起来的意志让多数人把焦点放在硬体设施的建设上,所以较无力处理传统文化的议题。还好重建期程够长,政府、部落和外来团队有足够的时间互相理解和磨合。

此外,921最动人的经验是民间力量的百花齐放。各个灾区因为在地人民的参与,加上民间力量的创意和资源技术的引入,不只社区营造开始动起来,更使整个中台湾民间力量汇集与升华。文化创意产业及社区意识的抬头,是921地震为中台湾留下的重要资产。


莫拉克经验:尊重部落文化
反观这次莫拉克水灾,除了地方与中央的政治角力外,过分强调效率与政绩,以及太多指导性的所谓的921经验,都让这次的灾后重建越来越隐晦和绑手绑脚,更抹煞了对于原住民文化特殊性的尊重。

如在紧急安置时,未考量原住民多数为基督信仰与荤食,让灾民在庙宇和素食斋饭中难以身心安顿;舍弃组合屋和中继概念直接跳到军营安置和永久屋的讨论,除了是重视政绩与效率,也反映执政者不明白:唯有让灾民回到部落的土地,才有部落和文化的养分支持大家继续参与后续长期的重建;慈济等民间团体协助兴建永久屋,用的是大众的捐款,却可以决定永久屋的形式和对于社区未来生活的想像(记得吗?慈济921灾后津津乐道的学校重建,几乎都是灰色和静思堂形状),为何不是以住民意见为主要考量、以当地部落文化为主要特色来思考永久屋的建造?

很多自以为专业的心理师或社工人员蜂拥至灾区,不懂当地原住民的语言、文化、习性、连跟部落一起讨论事情的能力都没有。这已不是专不专业的问题,而是有没有跨文化工作模式的问题。外来工作者愿不愿意放下身段与当地族人一起生活、愿不愿意蹲点、愿不愿意花时间倾听、愿不愿意运用当地人成为你的工作人员等等,都是外来团体和政府在重建过程可以有跨文化反省和修正的地方。但是强调绩效、流于形式的重建规划,扼杀的不只是民间的力量与创意,在地社群的主体性和文化的多元更难以开展。



欲详细了解「慢慢来,比较快」的社区工作理念,请看2009年11月号《人籁》论辨月刊。

更多关于莫拉克风灾的灾后重建
走过风雨,携手重建

附加的多媒体:
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Friday, 23 October 2009

慢慢來,比較快!

圖片提供/黃盈豪
本文為節錄,完整內容請見2009年11月號《人籟》論辨月刊


----------------------------------------
原住民部落於八八水災中受創嚴重,大水覆沒家園,文化傳承同樣面臨巨大考驗。在輿論壓力下,政府迅速展開一連串災後重建計劃,只是做得快未必表示做得好,面對艱困的重建路,或許我們需要思考另一種慢的藝術。
----------------------------------------

莫拉克水災重創南台灣,受災地區大多是原住民部落,或許目前媒體的關注已經退卻,但仍有上千災民安置在各個軍事營區,面臨家屋重建或是遷村的難題。從緊急救援到臨時安置再到社區重建,整個復原過程可能至少需要五年,而在重建過程中,要怎麼做,才能尊重原住民特殊的文化傳統?


921經驗:民間力量的重要性
筆者曾長期參與921部落重建工作,也曾以社工的角色參與七二水災、四川震災的救援與重建。從過去的經驗看這次的救災,筆者想呼籲跨文化的工作模式將是重建成敗與否的重要關鍵,而不是政治力量的操縱或是大量的資源挹注。

以921災後大安溪的泰雅族三叉坑部落重建為例,整個遷村過程花了超過六年才告完成。原住民部落跟平地社區很不一樣,不只有複雜的土地問題,還有不一樣的部落生態與文化。重建過程中,我們做社區工作的也在向部落學習,學習部落自有一套的步調和價值。當時因為政府和外來協力團隊都在慢慢摸索重建的適當方法,部落組織又還在被培力的階段,加上新部落蓋起來的意志讓多數人把焦點放在硬體設施的建設上,所以較無力處理傳統文化的議題。還好重建期程夠長,政府、部落和外來團隊有足夠的時間互相理解和磨合。

此外,921最動人的經驗是民間力量的百花齊放。各個災區因為在地人民的參與,加上民間力量的創意和資源技術的引入,不只社區營造開始動起來,更使整個中台灣民間力量匯集與昇華。文化創意產業及社區意識的抬頭,是921地震為中台灣留下的重要資產。


莫拉克經驗:尊重部落文化
反觀這次莫拉克水災,除了地方與中央的政治角力外,過分強調效率與政績,以及太多指導性的所謂的921經驗,都讓這次的災後重建越來越隱晦和綁手綁腳,更抹煞了對於原住民文化特殊性的尊重。

如在緊急安置時,未考量原住民多數為基督信仰與葷食,讓災民在廟宇和素食齋飯中難以身心安頓;捨棄組合屋和中繼概念直接跳到軍營安置和永久屋的討論,除了是重視政績與效率,也反映執政者不明白:唯有讓災民回到部落的土地,才有部落和文化的養分支持大家繼續參與後續長期的重建;慈濟等民間團體協助興建永久屋,用的是大眾的捐款,卻可以決定永久屋的形式和對於社區未來生活的想像(記得嗎?慈濟921災後津津樂道的學校重建,幾乎都是灰色和靜思堂形狀),為何不是以住民意見為主要考量、以當地部落文化為主要特色來思考永久屋的建造?

很多自以為專業的心理師或社工人員蜂擁至災區,不懂當地原住民的語言、文化、習性、連跟部落一起討論事情的能力都沒有。這已不是專不專業的問題,而是有沒有跨文化工作模式的問題。外來工作者願不願意放下身段與當地族人一起生活、願不願意蹲點、願不願意花時間傾聽、願不願意運用當地人成為你的工作人員等等,都是外來團體和政府在重建過程可以有跨文化反省和修正的地方。但是強調績效、流於形式的重建規劃,扼殺的不只是民間的力量與創意,在地社群的主體性和文化的多元更難以開展。



欲詳細了解「慢慢來,比較快」的社區工作理念,請看2009年11月號《人籟》論辨月刊。

更多關於莫拉克風災的災後重建
走過風雨,攜手重建

附加的多媒體:
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