Erenlai - Identity and Self-Realization 認同感與自我實現
Identity and Self-Realization 認同感與自我實現

Identity and Self-Realization 認同感與自我實現

 

 

Where do I come from? Where do I go?... These contributions offer tools to explore the complexities of identity, overcome contradictions and recognize one’s true self.

你的文化認同感很薄弱嗎?這裡的文章帶領你探索認同感的建立、矛盾的根源與自我意義的覺察。

 

 

Monday, 25 February 2008

父親,不只有背影

李禮君 撰文 Hubert攝影

在一代代華人的字裡行間,父親有著碩大儼然不可親近的形象。相對於母親的撫抱與哺育,在許多人的記憶中,父親的背影比臉孔來得清晰,正如作家朱自清在〈背影〉一文所言,我們似乎是看著父親漸行漸遠的背影而成長的。

今日,父親的職責有增無減,爸爸們卡在工作壓力與家庭責任之間,赫然發現職場生存不易,陪伴家人的時間越來越少。許多父親不願重複傳統的男性角色,而要當一個「新好男人」卻心有餘而力不足…究竟,怎樣做才能當一個「好父親」?

本期e人籟將與讀者分享今日父親的故事。「永遠的頑童」陶大偉分享他與陶喆這對「陶」氣父子的開放心態與生活互動;麗嬰房林泰生董事長則說,無論是照顧企業的四千名員工,或是在自己的四口之家做父親,「民主」都是不二法門。此外,還有新爸爸、單親爸爸、監獄受刑人…他們寫出了自己當爸爸的體驗,邀請您進入他們的苦樂與悲喜…

除了動人的故事,這一期我們深刻地探索「當爸爸」的新定義:現代家庭政策的變遷、父職的新挑戰,以及靈修體驗中「天父」與「人父」的相映照,我們更看見「父愛」跨越時空的本質。

從被凝視的背影到逐漸清晰的面貌,今日父親延續愛家的使命,同時給家新的生命活力。這一期《人籟》將是您「為父之路」上知性與心靈的加油站。期盼每一位父親以及未來的父親,都能找到屬於自己的「父親臉孔」!
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Monday, 25 February 2008

我們都是代理父母

不管是否生養小孩,社會裡的每個成年人都是父母。
儘管素昧生平,我們的言行舉止都是周遭孩子學習的榜樣。

劉建仁 撰文 蔡函岑 翻譯 梁准 拍攝

全人類最早的祖先若真是一對類人猿,在數百萬年前,當今地球上六十三億人本是一家。儘管如此,我們並未親如手足。每個人都有DNA,但是DNA並未拉近彼此的距離,反而讓我們漸行漸遠。但如果我想要了解自己身體和性格的由來,就要從雙親和祖父母身上找起,因為我的基因是他們遺傳的。

不過,我之所以為我,不只是因為父母遺傳基因給我。父母養育我,我在他們的教導之下長大,我的人生觀與行為深受雙親的影響。另一方面,我從父母身上習得的人生態度和行為模式同時也受外在環境所左右;我也有我自己的想法,一旦父母的價值觀和我不合,我不見得全盤接受,甚至會拒絕他們教導我的那一套。

所謂為人父母,不只是把孩子生下來而已。新生命誕生之後,成長發展的漫長過程需要耐心教導、細心呵護。但是現今大部分養兒育女的職責都由「代理父母」包辦。於是,養父母、監護人、托兒中心或是老師一肩挑起教育下一代的重責大任。年輕人學習的對象變成了電影、電視、網路、漫畫、或是卡通裡的人物,不然就是經常膩在一塊兒的死黨,他們的影響力取代了父母的教導。

因此,當今社會應該正視這個現象:不管是否生養小孩,社會裡的每個成年人都是父母。我們的言行舉止是周遭孩子們學習的榜樣,潛移默化地影響著他們。不僅如此,如果我們為國家的未來著想,如果我們關懷眾人的福祉,我們就要把握每一個機會,發揮公民的影響力,設法讓下一代獲得良好的教育,在健全的環境中成長:一方面要促使父母和監護人善盡職責,同時也要想方設法,健全青少年福利,彌補弱勢家庭無法提供子女的資源,並且引導孩子們走向正途。
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Saturday, 23 February 2008

台灣的菲律賓研究

楊昊 撰文 Cerise 圖片

今天收到一位朋友寄給我的信,裡頭談到臺灣在菲律賓研究上的知識累積多有不足。

我仔細回想一下,似乎找不出臺灣在菲律賓學上有深入研究、全方位認識的新生代重要學者。於是我決定稍微yahoo了一下,看看是不是能找出個所以然。

果然我打上關鍵字「菲律賓」與「政治」這兩個字,顯示出的結果為:全國博碩士論文(12);中文期刊篇目(1);大陸萬方期刊全文(67);學術網路資源(3,790);全國書目資訊網(12);數位典藏聯合目錄(2)。在博碩士論文中,最新的是2000年(可能還有新的我沒查到),但這本不是寫菲律賓本身,而是寫美國對菲外交政策。其中的十二篇論文,大多數都在1980-1990年代間完成。在期刊方面更是少了,只有顧老師一篇在2006年的亞太研究論壇裡的分析,相較之下,菲律賓的研究從陳鴻瑜老師與顧長永老師之後,似乎好像真的少了些可以延續的新生代研究人力。

打上「菲律賓」與「經濟」這兩個關鍵字,顯示的結果為:全國博碩士論文(3);中文期刊篇目(5);大陸萬方期刊全文(170);學術網路資源(6,609);全國書目資訊網(32);數位典藏聯合目錄(81)。在研究生的論文方面,真正談到菲國內部發展的大概只有1987年那本(當然,應該還有其他我沒查到的),在期刊方面有一些2002或2003的新文章,但都是屬於介紹性的或技術報告類的分析。

鍵入「菲律賓」與「社會」,結果呢?全國博碩士論文(4);中文期刊篇目(0);大陸萬方期刊全文(74);學術網路資源(5,820);全國書目資訊網(3);數位典藏聯合目錄(26)。這四篇博碩士論文中真正談到社會層面發展的,其實也不多,更不用說期刊了。

那麼,如果鍵入「菲律賓」與「安全」來搜尋,則結果更是恐怖:全國博碩士論文(0);中文期刊篇目(0);大陸萬方期刊全文(30);學術網路資源(3,936);全國書目資訊網(0);數位典藏聯合目錄(1)。最後,再鍵入「菲律賓」與「戰略」呢?結果一樣恐怖:全國博碩士論文(0);中文期刊篇目(0);大陸萬方期刊全文(28);學術網路資源(1,432);全國書目資訊網(0);數位典藏聯合目錄(0)。

很明顯地,儘管我們在每年一度的東南亞年會中,多少有幾篇研究菲律賓的分析產出,但真正化成碩博士論文或者轉換成期刊論文發表者,其實少之又少,甚至是極度匱乏的。這意味著臺灣的菲律賓研究應該已經到了某種瓶頸,新生代的學者能接手者或者有興趣進一步細探者實在不多。

這位在菲律賓求學的朋友的提醒,真的是當頭棒喝!的確,如果臺灣真的要獲得東南亞國家的認同,或者要在鄰近區域推動什麼重大策略以取得所謂的「外交進展」,若沒有好好花時間經營相關國家或鄰近區域的深入研究,至少得有基本的研究團隊固定引介資訊或知識,否則將很難說服鄰邦,讓他們願意交臺灣這個朋友。

儘管在我論文裡還是有著墨一些,但在未來有機會的話,我會嘗試著手經營菲律賓內政研究,希望能提供多一點有用的訊息與有意義的知識。當然,也希望這位朋友快快學成,無論要在菲國繼續研究,或者要回國服務,都將為新生代的東南亞研究社群帶來更多的活力!
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Thursday, 21 February 2008

Poems on fatherhood


TO MY FATHER
It’s hard to keep from going bad
If there’s no goodness in your Dad.
It’s hard to be a Wayward Son
If Dad won’t be the sire of one.
A boy needs giving-out, not giving-in.
So, thank you, Dad, for all you’ve been.

 

TO GRANDPA R.
I’ve never met you, Grandpa R.,
Because you live away so far.
But I can tell how you must be
By watching Dad and being Me.

 

EVERY SECOND NEEDS A FIRST
No fruit at the top
Is found on a crop
With nothing below.
Before that, indeed,
There must be good seed
To make it all grow.
The way to be bolder
Is stand on the shoulder
Of someone who’s already bold.
You’ll only be taller,
If once you were smaller.
For only the golden are gold.
No letter, no mail.
There’s only a sale
If something is sold.
No moisture, no hail.
There’s only a tale
If a story is told.


 

Saturday, 16 February 2008

出去玩

我喜欢到外面玩
任泥巴沾满全身
我的脸 我的手 脚 乳房 性器 无一幸免
然后再想办法
不论是刮洗 呕吐 或 灌肠
总之
将自己弄乾净
我喜欢有人同我说话
但我的嘴是否弥漫著
令人作呕的腐臭?
我躲到浴室里拼命刷牙
直到血水溢出了我的水盆子
我听过不少的金玉良言
泥池子若淌进去了
那味儿就跟著一辈子
我听过不少血血泪泪的故事
但我不会为她们掉一滴眼泪
我还是喜欢出去玩
任泥巴沾满我全身

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关于 ’出去玩’

一切都是因为失恋、失学
以及爱上了垃圾般的朋友们
我才开始到处冲撞
摸索自己的声音、轮廓和极限
自己当自己的作者与读者;表演者与观众
慢慢、随性地,玩各种创作素材
渐渐地为朋友们接受

我挚爱的朋友们在废墟、在远方、在酒馆、咖啡店、家里蹲
到现在为止没一个有出息
但是他们每个人都各有一种强烈的色彩
兀自绽放
令人目不转睛
我想向他们致敬
就用这首诗。

附加的多媒体:
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Saturday, 16 February 2008

出去玩

我喜歡到外面玩
任泥巴沾滿全身
我的臉 我的手 腳 乳房 性器 無一倖免
然後再想辦法
不論是刮洗 嘔吐 或 灌腸
總之
將自己弄乾淨
我喜歡有人同我說話
但我的嘴是否瀰漫著
令人作嘔的腐臭?
我躲到浴室裡拼命刷牙
直到血水溢出了我的水盆子
我聽過不少的金玉良言
泥池子若淌進去了
那味兒就跟著一輩子
我聽過不少血血淚淚的故事
但我不會為她們掉一滴眼淚
我還是喜歡出去玩
任泥巴沾滿我全身

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關於 ’出去玩’

一切都是因為失戀、失學
以及愛上了垃圾般的朋友們
我才開始到處衝撞
摸索自己的聲音、輪廓和極限
自己當自己的作者與讀者;表演者與觀眾
慢慢、隨性地,玩各種創作素材
漸漸地為朋友們接受

我摯愛的朋友們在廢墟、在遠方、在酒館、咖啡店、家裡蹲
到現在為止沒一個有出息
但是他們每個人都各有一種強烈的色彩
兀自綻放
令人目不轉睛
我想向他們致敬
就用這首詩。

附加的多媒體:
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Tuesday, 05 February 2008

我是東協公民

跨國大學生態度調查的結果顯示,有76.8%的受訪者認為自己是東協公民。

楊昊 撰文
寫於2008年1月22日

東協在韓國政府的經費支持下,在2007年推動了一項有關東協意識與態度研究的跨國大規模調查。這次橫跨十國的調查主要訪問了2170位學生,受訪者平均年齡在20歲左右,男女性別比例接近1:1。從這次大規模訪問的結果,兩位教授將受訪者對東協的態度與東協意識的立場,分別歸為四種不同的類型:熱衷論者、正面支持者、矛盾猶疑者以及懷疑論者。在兩千多位大學生中,以正面支持東協者居多,這些支持者在本質上與熱衷論者相近。反映在成員國方面,以柬埔寨、寮國與越南等國的學生對於東協秉持著高度熱衷的態度;相較之下,新加坡學生則是多半傾向矛盾猶疑的態度,而近年來引起許多爭議的緬甸則是對東協抱持著懷疑的態度。

問卷中有幾項對於受訪者在東協公民意識、對區域理解與整合行動的優先順序的問題,可以被視為是這項大規模訪問的關鍵指標。其中,對於東協公民意識的訪問,整體而言有76.8%的學生認為自己是東協公民,尤其在柬埔寨、寮國、越南有九成以上的學生表示支持,而在汶萊、馬來西亞則有八成以上的支持率。值得注意的是,一向被認為是國際型城市國家的新加坡,只有四成九左右的學生認為自己是東協公民。

再者,對於文化接近性的問題,以越南、寮國、柬埔寨、印尼等國的學生認為東協成員國之間有明顯的文化親近性。相較之下,在新加坡、汶萊、緬甸、馬來西亞的學生,則認為東協國家的文化親近性較小。

另外,對於認識東協的訪問,整體來看約有60.7%的學生對東協有一定程度的認識,包括成立時間、旗幟等歷史事實。儘管如此,還是有近4成的學生對東協的發展與現況趕到生疏。其中,在瞭解程度方面自認最清楚東協發展的兩個國家,分別是寮國(84.5%)與越南(88.6%)的學生。最不瞭解的東協者則是緬甸(9.6%),從資料顯示約有90%以上的受訪學生對東協感到陌生。

最後,對於區域與鄰國的認識方面,在受訪者中有近91.8%的學生願意再多瞭解所處區域的其他國家,其中尤其以柬埔寨(99.6%)、越南(98.5%)、菲律賓(97.2%)的學生表現出相當積極的態度。但相較之下,國內社會較為封閉的緬甸仍有15.4%的受訪者不願意積極瞭解所處區域與鄰近國家。

東協秘書長素林在會中表示,曾在2006年到2007年擔任輪值主席的菲律賓,儘管大力在國內推動東協意識,但還是只有38.6%的學生認得東協的官方旗幟,類似的現象亦出現在素林的母國泰國國內。此種現象意味著東協與成員國儘管近年來積極推銷東協形象,目前各國大學生亦逐漸具備初階的東協意識,但這種意識在內涵上或者是在強度上仍多有不足。尤其相對于東協十國中的五億六千七百萬公民而言,東協組織或成員國如果要徹底推動認識東協的工作,或者要強化在地社會的東協意識,其實還有一段漫長的路要走。

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楊昊的部落格

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Thursday, 31 January 2008

我不再是尹清枫遗孀

李美葵 声音

一九九三年十二月,时任海军武获室执行长的尹清枫上校被发现遭到杀害,继而引爆拉法叶舰弊案,震惊国际。陈水扁总统曾表示「即使动摇国本也要办到底」,然而十四年后的今日,尹案依旧胶著悬宕。案发迄今,坊间已出版三十馀种以尹案为主题的专书,显见此案受社会大众所关注的程度。
多年来,总被外界冠以「尹清枫遗孀」的李美葵女士,在《人籁》的邀约下,慷慨分享她「选择饶恕」的历程,卸除遗孀的重担。宽恕是无比艰难的,是一个人基于信心与爱而做出的选择。她的故事,邀请我们每一个人重新思索自己的选择,请聆听她的生命故事。

全文请见【人籁论辨月刊第46期,2008年2月】

附加的多媒体:
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Monday, 28 January 2008

我不再是尹清楓遺孀

李美葵 聲音

一九九三年十二月,時任海軍武獲室執行長的尹清楓上校被發現遭到殺害,繼而引爆拉法葉艦弊案,震驚國際。陳水扁總統曾表示「即使動搖國本也要辦到底」,然而十四年後的今日,尹案依舊膠著懸宕。案發迄今,坊間已出版三十餘種以尹案為主題的專書,顯見此案受社會大眾所關注的程度。
多年來,總被外界冠以「尹清楓遺孀」的李美葵女士,在《人籟》的邀約下,慷慨分享她「選擇饒恕」的歷程,卸除遺孀的重擔。寬恕是無比艱難的,是一個人基於信心與愛而做出的選擇。她的故事,邀請我們每一個人重新思索自己的選擇,請聆聽她的生命故事。

全文請見【人籟論辨月刊第46期,2008年2月】

附加的多媒體:
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Wednesday, 23 January 2008

The Year of the Rat

I was born the Year of the Rat. (No, that was not 1912 - and, no, that was not 1996 either…) Looking at the Chinese zodiac I read the following; “People born in the Year of the Rat are noted for their charm and attraction for the opposite sex. They work hard to achieve their goals, acquire possessions, and are likely to be perfectionists. They are basically thrifty with money. Rat people are easily angered and love to gossip. Their ambitions are big, and they are usually very successful.” Of course, I find this portrait strikingly dissimilar to my real self! But I will not enter into a counter-analysis of rat people’s personality…

In any case, rats are experts in avoiding traps and dangers, and this might be exactly what we need in a time where crises and pitfalls seem to be hiding everywhere… Maybe, rather than making overoptimistic, unrealistic wishes, we should just ask for the gift and the luck of walking safely, with caution, on the bumpy roads we travel… May the little rats be our teachers in caution and wisdom rather than in seduction and greediness!

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Monday, 21 January 2008

The anatomy of silence

The core connotation of the word “silence” is the absence of sound: stillness or quiet. It is also used to denote the absence of speech: reticence or refusal to speak. Some people need silence to be able to sleep; for many sleep also requires mental silence, being able to turn off the stream of worries or ideas that are crowding and stimulating the mind. In this sense, even the deaf need this inner silence. Some people thrive seemingly undistracted in the presence of noise or find music, even loud music soothing or stimulating, a help rather than a distraction. Many people need quiet and the absence of distractions in order to think or function properly.

It is very difficult for anyone not born deaf to imagine the absolute silence of no sound whatsoever, just as the born deaf find it hard to imagine what sound or noise would be like. Actually, except perhaps when sound asleep, the hearing never really experience total silence. There are always background noises, the buzz of insects, the distant rumbles of traffic, the murmur of our hearts, ringing in our ears, the hum of machinery or passage of the wind, the rustling of paper or the clicking of the keys on the keyboard. Even the deaf need mental quiet, that is freedom from distracting thoughts, to be able to think properly.

Silence can be very frightening and intolerable when one is feeling alone and abandoned or sorely in need of distraction or stimulation or human contact. But silence more often than not is quite helpful or necessary in times when we need to concentrate without distraction. The monks in their monasteries practice silence, not speaking to one another, in order to spend their time in quiet prayer. Proponents of meditation, whether religious or secular, put silence and shutting off the external world as a prerequisite, not to create emptiness, but an atmosphere free of distraction where one can find and commune with one’s inner self or be open to inspiration from above.

Meditation is not intended to create a dark and empty void. We are encouraged to imagine some soothing sounds, pleasurable sensations, place ourselves in some significant location or environment, where we just rest and relax, leaving our minds open to whatever inspirations or ideas that may occur. For a believer, it is an occasion for communicating with God. For everyone it is a moment of relaxation that refreshes and energizes the spirit. Such moments of silence are not silent at all, but the sounds we hear are not noises that enter our ears, but gentle motions of our minds.

It is possible to elaborate the anatomy of such encounters with silence. The first step is to put yourself in some place that will be free from distractions, a relatively quiet place, and to assume some position or posture that is comfortable and relaxing but not likely to put you right to sleep. Then consciously relax all those muscles that keep you so tense all the time. Some people think of them one by one or slowly count down from ten. The mind needs to be freed from unnecessary or distracting thoughts which can be done by imagining some pleasant sounds and picturing yourself in some pleasant environment. Then just sit back enjoying your present state, keeping your mind open to whatever will transpire. Then when the time is up and/or you feel you have done enough, slowly return to the hustle and bustle of the normal world. Some people find it helpful to write down a brief record of what they felt or any ideas that came to them, but this has never appealed to me.

Such moments of silence refresh our minds and restore the energy and enthusiasm we need to function more effectively in the world of noise and commotion.

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Monday, 07 January 2008

How To Move A Tree

Early one morning in a park in Taiwan I came across a man who had stopped off on his way home from the market to harness himself to a tree. For a moment it looked as if he were trying to move the tree to another place, maybe drag it home for his front yard. I had to laugh at the crazy thought. That tree wasn’t going to budge. The man was obviously engaged in some kind of exercise. Most likely, he brought his harness out every morning to do the same practice. I once read in a book of eastern philosophy that if you had a fish in a pond and you wanted it to get big and strong you put a stone in the middle of the pond. The fish would swim around and around the stone trying to get to the other side. No matter what side of the stone he was on, the other side always beckoned. And so he kept swimming. In time, he would be much bigger and stronger than a fish in a pond without a stone in the middle.

It seems crazy to attempt the impossible, and yet it brings about a strength that can’t be gotten otherwise. This man will never move the tree; but he will become very strong. I may or may not become the writer I set out to be in my youth, but the effort has really changed my life and I feel it’s made me a better person. The fish, no matter what side of the stone he gets to, never reaches the “other” side. He’s always on the side he’s on. The other side, though, by being there, eventually makes of him a superior fish.

A man, a tree, a fish, a stone; a blank page, a writer — no matter how hard we try, there is that which we can never quite reach. But then one day we find that somehow it has reached us — and recognize, with surprise and astonishment, the other side.

(Photo by the author - Early morning scene in a city park in Taiwan.)

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