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Thursday, 27 February 2014 00:00

7月─ 8月-戲劇的力量

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本期《人籟》從法國劇作家亞陶的殘酷劇出發,探討戲劇與生命的關係,以及戲劇所湧現的力量。現今的電影、電視,甚至網路,出現了大量、重複性的「演出」,劇場及其影響力似乎逐漸式微,但劇場獨具的「Live」性質——不只是「現場」,且是唯一、無法重複的「活生生」——至今仍沒有任何媒介可取代。劇場不只是提供娛樂,而是針對真實世界所做的真實行動。透過這個專輯,我們期待可以拉近觀眾與劇場的距離,當人們起身走入劇場時,或許也意味著我們準備面對真實的自己。

(封面攝影/劉振祥,金枝演社《可愛冤仇人》劇照)

目錄

論辨空間

01 幸福城不幸事件

大人的世界,為什麼總是充滿謊言?

撰文│李禮君 繪圖│笨篤

讀未來

04 速化社會下的塑化危機

當生活充滿人工調味劑,我們失去的不只是自身的健康,就連後代子孫的存續也賠了進去……

撰文∣陳修玲

06 消失中的人文科系

台灣研究」相關系所成立不過短短十幾年,卻面臨「甫成立就倒閉」的危機,究竟高等教育出了什麼問題?

撰文∣藍士博

人籟事件簿

08 遊.樂:世界音樂在台灣

跨國際、跨民族、跨文化的世界音樂,讓蟄伏已久的心靈重新震動……

撰文│陶然(Fabian Torres)、杜宏安(Jose Duarte)、張俐紫(Cerise Phiv)

翻譯│陳雨君

人籟部落格

16 讀者迴響

專輯

18 前言

20 因為殘酷,所以真實──亞陶的生命三幕劇

劇作家亞陶的人生,正如一幕幕殘酷劇,上演著無止盡的詛咒與糾纏

撰文│張俐紫Cerise Phiv翻譯∣張令憙

26對話時代,走向前衛──王墨林談小劇場運動流變

一場革命被埋葬在這片死沉沉的土地,混雜著遺忘的記憶和躁動的慾望。

口述∣王墨林  整理∣何靜茹  攝影∣許斌

32 走入群眾,反抗壓迫──專訪「差事劇團」團長鍾喬

戲劇不只是藝術,它還是任何弱勢民眾都能運用的「文化的武器」。

採訪撰文│陳雨君

36 倒看世界,正視人生──專訪「當機劇團」黃明正

一個從小就喜歡倒立的男孩,以熾熱純真之心,用倒立細說他的馬戲寓言。

採訪、撰文│張幸雯

40 狂飆之後,等待再起──台灣劇場的過去與現在

解嚴前後,台灣劇場試圖衝破被壓抑的社會氛圍,而今時空已變,他們如何走出自己的新方向?

撰文∣耿一偉

50越過傳,擁抱解放──法國人看台灣現代戲劇

台灣現代劇場的題材隨著時間不斷變化,也彰顯出自由化以來產生的衝突與改變。

撰文∣Diane Vandermolina 翻譯∣謝靜雯

58 照見真我,撫平傷痕──戲劇的療癒力

透過虛擬的戲劇可以卸除現實的束縛,讓迷途的心找回應有的位置。

撰文∣張志豪

64 重返本源,萬物合一──亞陶殘酷劇的宗教、儀式根源

亞陶由古宗教儀式中尋得啟示,要人重返生命之源,進行自我療癒

撰文|林崇慧

人文論辨

76 不只是觀光離島──吉貝的四季容顏

吉貝蘊含豐富的在地文化,在春夏秋冬的交替中,不斷展現迷人的生活風貌。

撰文│馮忠恬

心靈地圖

84 化小愛為大愛──「法扶志工」柯媽媽的故事

撰文│林冠儀 照片提供│文向教育基金會

88 愛滋病人的媽咪──呂修女訪問實紀

採訪∣陳美琴 編撰∣江漢聲

94 童養媳與侍妾──蔣渭水生命中的兩個女人

撰文│石芳瑜 圖片提供∣蔣渭水文化基金會

影像與想像

98 臉書幽隱的下一頁

臉書創辦者之間的糾葛,明白揭示:我們難逃現實的疏離

撰文∣Alfredo 劇照提供∣得利影視股份有限公司

102 獻給父親的絮語

生之源以愛供養牽絆,縱然有所殘破缺憾,卻使我們不再無根飄盪

撰文∣曾炫淳劇照提供∣山水國際娛樂

書評

108 中年少女的鎮魂歌

心中的少女讓你一再跌跤,讓你不肯變老。你卻依舊匍匐前進,永遠在現實與夢幻的邊界上漂流。

撰文∣石芳瑜攝影∣莊媛晰

112 透視新貧現象

在資本主義全球化的浪潮下,傳統白領階級不斷流失,新興的貧窮階級成為另一種全球化現象。

撰文|王乾任攝影|莊媛晰

Published in 人籟 2011

In an interview given to the Jesuit cultural journals in August 2014 Pope Francis mentioned two thinkers he particularly likes: Henri de Lubac and Michel de Certeau. He has mentioned the latter several other times, particularly for his edition of the "Journal" of St Pierre Fabre, which inspired the Spanish edition he asked two Jesuits of his province to undertake.

The mention of Henri de Lubac might not be very surprising, as the author of 'Meditations on the Church" is certainly a Jesuit theologian universally respected and admired. The one he made of Michel de Certeau raises other questions. Famous among anthropologists and historians, Michel de Certeau may be a little less popular among Jesuits, and his style and thought have made him less consensual an author. But an exception to this rule should be made for... Latin America. Michel de Certeau taught on this continent many times, and several of his books were translated into Spanish at an early stage.

Michel de Certeau (1925 – 1986) wrote on history, psychoanalysis, philosophy, and the social sciences. He started by studying Jesuit mystics of the 16th and 17th centuries (especially Jean-Joseph Surin, and went on exploring the formation of history as an academic discipline, mobilizing his professional experience as a trained archive historian. He also tried to interpret the mystical authors he had been studying in historical perspective. The experience of the "night of the senses" or of "ecstasy" cannot be repeated or understood in the same way as in the past, but we are still experiencing the "departures' and "coming back" of God through the filter provided by social sciences, by psychoanalysis and by the institutional changes affecting the Church and society. In other words, we are still "travelers" and "migrants', but we travel through new landscapes and uncharted territories. Michel de Certeau was very sensitive to the inventiveness deployed by ordinary people in their everyday life (a dominant theme of The Practice of Everyday Life, probably his most influential book), and was thus able to speak about spiritual experience in its diversity and contrasts.

One can guess and feel what Pope Francis appreciates in Michel de Certeau's thought and works: a deep knowledge of Ignatian spirituality associated with a desire not to repeat the past but rather to be creatively inspired by it; a special attention given to the resources and ways of life of ordinary people; a deep sense of the crisis affecting Church institutions; and a love for cultural diversity and artistic sensitivity.

So far, four books of Michel de Certeau have been published into Chinese. An academic program is presently under construction for more and (better) translations. Several present-day thinkers consider that the resource offered by Michel de Certeau are nowadays more useful for understanding cultural and social patterns than the ones provided by more well known authors like, say, Michel Foucault. Here is a Jesuit author whose thought can and probably will grow influential in China during the years to come.

Actually, the influence of Michel de Certeau could be detected early in the words of Pope Francis. In 2012, in an interview to an Italian newspaper, the then-cardinal Bergoglio was declaring: "We have to avoid the spiritual sickness of self-referential church. It's true that when you get out into the street, as happens to every man and woman, there can be accidents. However, if the church remains closed in on itself, self-referential, it gets old. Between a church that suffers accidents in the street, and a church that's sick because it's self-referential, I have no doubts about preferring the former." The word "self-referential" often comes in the words spoken by Francis, and it refers to something that he perceives as a specific temptation within the Church. In my view, the risk-taking attitude is the only one that can connect into a meaningful dialogue 'culture' - or "cultures" – and faith(s).

"Culture" is not a luxury product, is not something like paintings or flowers that we would hang on the walls or put on the table after everything else is ready. "Culture" refers to the worldviews, languages, ways of translating emotions, identities and insights that are developed and perpetually transformed by individuals and communities. Cultures are one with the "languages" (oral, written, artistic, emotional) that shape communication among peoples, and also communication between peoples and the Church. The Word took flesh within a given culture, expressed Himself with the resources of this culture while He was also challenging it, and He asked us to continue the "translation work" that He started when He was "explaining" to us (literally: "making the exegesis" cf John 1,18) of the mystery of the Father. By doing so, by asking us to continue this "exegesis" of the divine mystery in various languages and contexts, Jesus encourages us to go from the "scattered diversity" of Babel to the "unitive diversity" of Pentecost. When we close on our own "clerical culture" we refuse to open up the walls of our house, we refuse to surrender ourselves to the fire, the wind and the diversity of tongues that constitute the Pentecostal gift. This is the perspective from which I propose to consider not only our "cultural apostolic works" but also our mission among cultures in its totality.

For a Jesuit, the intuition according to which we are evangelizers only if we are "evangelized' by the people with whom we meet remains a basic one. Reflecting on Church history teaches us that building up a position of "superiority' from which to preach without ourselves begin changed ultimately produces rotten fruits. I am often reminded for myself of the words of Jesus: "Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You travel over land and sea to win a single convert, and when you have succeeded, you make them twice as much a child of hell as you are." (Mt 23, 15) In a context where Jesus reproaches the Pharisees to impose on people burdens impossible to bear, it certainly requires from us to examine whether we make our teaching, our living and our understanding of human situations one and the same endeavor. It happens that zealous "converts" generate more negative than positive energies. Preaching the faith and fostering a process of human growth need to be two interrelated endeavors. 'Pulling on the shoots to help the rice to grow" ruins the harvest.

A more personal note: when I include in a textbook of Latin and Roman Religion, as I did recently in Beijing, excerpts and commentaries of Tertullianus, Augustine, Minucius Felix, etc..., showing how their intellectual and spiritual elaboration was closely linked to the developments happening in the Roman Empire I may contribute in my very modest way to an "understanding of the faith" which is not direct evangelization but attempts to nurture a rooting of Christianity into sound intellectual and spiritual insights. The same could be said of what we do in a variety of fields. While not hesitating to be counter-cultural, we also try to make the Christian worldview better understood by contemporary culture, while trying to make the Church emerge from what is presently a kind of cultural ghetto.

Going one step further, I have no problem either in the fact of devoting - as I do - a large part of my time to the study of Chinese religions - as we could also invest in paleontology of biology. The Jesuit charisma should remain to be at the frontiers of knowledge, with a sense of gratuitousness - the very gratuitousness through which God created us - for it is the way we "praise God" by marveling at the work that his Spirit accomplishes throughout the course of natural and human history - a praise that remains on our lips even when we are confronted to realities that seemingly challenge our faith and introduce us into an 'intellectual dark night."

Thanks to Francis and to Michel de Certeau for helping us to become more sensitive, in everything we undertake and we reflect upon, to the wonderful gratuitousness of a God who delights in dwelling among us.

Illustration by Bendu.

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