Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Tuesday, 26 August 2008
Tuesday, 26 August 2008 21:35

A Letter on Atelier 3

Dear Cerise,

You asked me about my short apprenticeship in Atelier 3 of Architect Hsieh Ying-jun (謝英俊). What can I say to you as I have only gotten to practice the labor part in architecture which has little to express in language?

As a part-time Chinese language teacher, I should have nothing to do with architecture, yet I have an interest of building houses through my various reading. As a philosopher doing logical research, Wittgenstein had designed and built a house for his sister in Vienna, so why can’t a linguistic student become an apprentice in an architecture company? So I searched on the internet and got in touch with Atelier 3 of Mr. Hsieh.

Mr. Hsieh has great ideas about sustainable architecture. The most famous example was the reconstruction of Thao community after the 921 earthquake. In the Thao’s case they used low processed, low cost natural materials, and Hsieh has adopted simplified construction methods, so that non-professional workers can engage in reconstruction work. Through the process of building a house together, the identity of a community becomes much more concentrated. Thus Hsieh’s architecture can attain a balance not only between the ecological and economical aspects but also the social and cultural aspects.

Though viewed from a more empirical scale, the Thao community is still in the context of modern state political governing and also dominated by capitalistic economy as anywhere else in Taiwan or in the whole modern world we live in. The fact now is that after a few years cheering for the successful reconstruction, few designers remain living in the Atelier in Nantou due to different construction projects scattered all around Taiwan. The Atelier, as an open architecture, is flexibly designed to be adjusted by the owners who live in it. When an open architecture has few people living in it, it can be quite lonesome. In fact the people who really live and work in it are the construction workers. I was kindly treated by A-guei, who is the manager of the construction work group, also a Thao person, and who is very likely to be elected as the headman of Thao’s ethnic group committee. A-guei and his work group are an essential part in the Dawen(1) construction company led by Hsieh’s elder brother. They conduct the greater part of real construction work of most houses built by Hsieh’s Atelier. They have just established a cooperative this year (2008), so that they may receive other building cases on their own in the future, though it doesn’t seem so easy to run a business on their own at the beginning.

In reality, to what extent can we say that architecture helps to maintain the social connection, or shape the social relation, or to what extent the community can preserve their tradition, or to what extent they can be a self-sufficient unit, remains a question to be argued. We need more people to be aware of the fact of how hard the aborigine culture is striving to maintain itself in this global modernization context. The question is huge. Yet the solution is so simple that you can do it in your daily life, just by adjusting a little in attitude. You may shed some concern to aborigine groups by attending their annual festivals, not in a touristic way, but by trying to make friends with the local people.

The two construction projects I participated in were two private houses located in Fulong, Taipei County and Yuchi, Nantou County. These two houses, though not as big as in the Thao community, still maintain the same manufacturing methods practiced by Hsieh with the simple light-steel structure, and wooden façade. The one in Nantou even has a solar-electricity board, providing household hot water on sunny days, and also there’s an ecological pool that can purify the waste water before it goes into the mountain stream.

Enjoy reading and live a cheerful life.

Best,

Shufan

(1)‘Dawen’ means ‘home’ in Thao language.

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Tuesday, 26 August 2008 19:40

能源再生,全球浪潮。

撰文│公视「我们的岛」制作小组

近年国际石油价格不断飙高,声声喊涨,传统能源的危机迫在眉睫,人类不断寻找新能源的出路。在所有再生能源中,脚步最快的是风力发电。二○○六年,从苗栗竹南到后龙沿海矗立起二十五支风机,迎风旋转。这是全亚洲装置容量最大的单一风场,也是外商在台湾投资设立的第一个民营发电厂。


台湾风能潜力看好

政府计画在二○一○年将再生能源的比重提高到总发电量的10%,其中风力发电比重高达4.2%,是未来再生能源发展的主力。风力发电之所以能够一马当先,最重要的原因是价格便宜,一度电大约两元左右,可以跟传统能源竞争。

苗栗沿海所装设的风机是由德商Enercon公司所生产,该公司在德国经营风机已经有二十年的历史。他们在全世界装设的风机中,发电效率最好的一支就在台湾澎湖。外资看好台湾风力市场的潜力,德国政府更第一次对风力发电提供专案融资,德商将投入两百亿元的资金,在台湾西海岸开发装置容量四十到五十万瓩的风场。加上台电的风力计画,预计未来十年,台湾风力发电的规模将达到两百万瓩以上,可以供应上百万户的用电需求。


学界积极研发太阳能科技

在太阳能方面,台湾已挤进全球太阳能光电生产的前十名。台湾日照量更是德国等高纬度国家的三倍。看好台湾太阳能光电发展的潜力,德国太阳能光电船设计业者来台湾,与长期研发太阳能车的国立高雄应用科技大学教授艾和昌合作,进行太阳能船技术交流,未来将在南台湾爱河、大鹏湾等地区推广太阳能船,作为零污染无噪音的水上交通工具。

太阳能不但可以发电,经过特殊的制冷技术,还可以将太阳的热能转换成「冷气」。工研院与民间业者合作研发「太阳能冷却空调系统」,利用固态矽胶吸附水蒸气,让热水变冰水。炎炎夏日太阳越是炽热,室内的冷气却越凉爽,享受空调却不用花任何电费。

有人利用太阳能的热水变成冷气,更有人利用热水来发电。前交大教授吴溢隆发明了一套用水来发电的系统,结合了量子学的观念、奈米材料的特性、用燃料电池的技术与电化学的手法,在小小的不绣钢容器之中加入纯水,就可以发电。吴溢隆把这种利用水作为燃料,产生电流的特殊装置,称为「泳电」,意思是永久之水来电。最近他更结合了能够储存光热的奈米材料,发明了「昶电」,也就是只要有水、有光或热能,就能发电。这套利用水和热就能发电的方式,在国际上还是首见,目前可以应用在手机、PDA等小型电子产品上。虽然现在还在实验室的阶段,但吴溢隆说,接下来的目标是要做一辆加水就可以跑的车。

在台湾,越来越多家户加入阳光建筑的行列。在太阳能热水系统方面,国内目前累计装置面积已超过一百五十万平方公尺,安装户数约三十万户。有栋位于宜兰的透天厝,将装上1.8KW的太阳能板,生产的电力不但可以自给自足,多馀的电还可以回卖给台电。


生质能源计划起跑

车子加水就可以跑的梦想,或许还要一段时间才能实现;但是,车子加大豆油就可以跑,却已经是世界潮流。台湾政府亦奖励农民利用休耕农地种植能源作物,作为生质柴油的原料。二○○六年,云嘉南地区有一千五百公顷休耕地投入能源作物计画;二○○七年,台北、桃园两县加入,能源作物的种植面积提高到两千三百多公顷。

除了大豆、向日葵之外,甘蔗与番薯等含糖份或淀粉的植物,可以在发酵之后制成生质酒精。全世界发展酒精汽油最著名的国家是巴西,他们萃取甘蔗的糖分制造生质酒精,目前使用酒精汽油的比例高达25%。台湾原本就是甘蔗王国,具有生产酒精汽油的条件,目前台糖与农试所正积极研究适合生产酒精的甘蔗、甜高梁与甘藷品种,预料将成为下一波生质能的主力。


燃煤发电比重过高

不过,当世界各国为了减缓温室效应,开始实施二氧化碳减量策略,纷纷降低燃煤发电的比重之时,台湾却跟世界趋势背道而驰。

二氧化碳的产生跟发电方式息息相关。台湾现在发电用的燃料是以煤和天然气为主,其中燃煤的污染最严重,每发一度电就会产生0.9公斤的二氧化碳,但燃煤的比重却占能源供给量的32%,而且这个比重正逐年上升。

「我们整个电力结构有问题,二氧化碳的排放量才会增加那么快。」中研院经济研究所研究员梁启源指出:「我们最近几年的发展,表面上是发展再生能源替代核电厂,事实上是以火力发电来代替。燃煤变成发电主力,造成高碳能源的比重提高,低碳能源比重降低,能源结构持续恶化。」

台电燃煤电厂的兴扩建计划正一个接一个进行,以深澳与林口两个燃煤电厂兴建案为例,兴建成本高达一千四百亿,未来的发电量将超过核四厂。十多年前国外就已经发展出效率较高、污染量较低的「超超临界」燃煤机组,但台电采用的却是效率不到50%的「超临界」机组,当我们选择一个效率比较低的燃煤发电,等于是决定台湾未来半世纪的温室气体排放将居高不下。


迎向全球新能源浪潮

为什么要选择高污染的燃煤作为发电主力?许多人把原因归咎于非核家园政策。世新行政管理学系教授林子伦指出,从世界的趋势来看,核能的新投资跟再生能源的投资在二○○四有一个交叉点,再生能源已经超过核能。例如英国在二○○三年发表了一份能源政策白皮书,目标是迈向「低碳经济」,他们宣示未来五十年内要把温室气体降低到现在的60%以下,他们在这方面做了很多投资。

其实创造能源最有效的方式,不只是寻找新能源,而是节省能源,于是各种节能的产品也应运而生。以台大校园里目前安装的高亮度LED路灯为例,一盏灯每年可以节省三千多元的电费,台大新能源中心主持人黄秉钧估计,未来大小巷的路灯如果都改装LED照明,可以省下一座核能电厂的发电量。

当传统能源的危机渐渐逼近,再生能源正在全世界扩张版图、蓄势待发。在全球新能源的浪潮下,台湾正努力勾勒出属于自己的新能源图像。


附注:

**97年1-6月国内能源供需概况**

经济部能源局分析97年1-6月国内能源供需概况指出,油价上涨、车市衰退,造成运输用能源下降3.7%;工业部门因石化及电子业生产畅旺,能源消费成长13.1%;而反映一般民众日常开支的服务业及住宅部门能源消费,亦较96年同期成长 4.6%及2.8%。97年1-6月我国能源总消费达6,163万公秉油当量,较96年同期增加6.7%。
而在能源供给中,进口能源占99.3%,自产能源仅占0.7%;个别能源占总供给之比重,以石油占52.2%最高,煤炭占29.9%居次,其次分别为天然气9.5%,核能发电8.0%,水力及再生能源发电0.4%。

附加的多媒体:
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