Erenlai - Daring to Take Risks 勇於冒險
Daring to Take Risks 勇於冒險

Daring to Take Risks 勇於冒險

True wisdom helps us to take risks… True wisdom weighs the risks and shows us how to face them.Here is advice and experiences that will help you to decide when to take risks and how to survive them. An alternative cookbook for success!

有趣的人生不是多少冒點險的呢?我們活在這世上的短短數十年裡,你是隨時迎向挑戰,還是躲在安全的框架中希望人生就此一帆風順呢?帶著冒險精神生活是需要智慧跟勇氣的!

 

 

 

Tuesday, 30 January 2007

印度最有人缘的生意人

他亮出那明朗灿烂的微笑时,牙齿所闪烁的光泽一如骄傲伸展的手中所展示的珍珠。他的名字叫哈金(Hakim)。在印度第六大城海德拉巴(Hyderabad)令人印象深刻的史迹查米纳(Charminar)一带,他可能是最好的生意人。海德拉巴是印度安达拉邦(Andra Pradesh)的首府,当地有75%的人口都很贫困。而哈金只有八岁大。
海德拉巴以钻石和珍珠闻名,哈金则利用此一名声,贩售仿珠给游客来赚钱。他拿给我一串珍珠,开价一美元。我婉拒的时候他反而笑得更开,将珍珠举得更高、更靠近我的脸。他明亮的双眼始终与我视线相交,而他不断地恳求:「买我的珍珠。」
我蹲下来跟他聊天,问他的名字,试著以语言、表情、手势来跟他沟通。哈金尽力以他仅知的几个英文字回应我,笑得更加开朗,而且一直在我眼前摇晃那串珍珠。他燃烧的双眼和满溢的热诚终于软化了我,而我付了一美元买下一串珍珠。
他马上又展开另一波攻势要卖我第二串,这次要价只有一半!我叫我的同伴过来,他们也很快就为哈金所掳获,开始买他的珍珠。街上的其他小贩看他如此成功,都皱起眉头发牢骚,试著要把他赶走,但微笑哈金可不会让步!
他也是个很有道德的生意人。他的销售行为完全透明。我们问他每串珍珠花多少钱买来,他坦白告诉我们「五卢比」或「十一美分」!所以他在我们身上获利甚丰。对此他显然很骄傲,显然也信任我们能够了解他的处境。哈金多数的珍珠都以十到二十卢比卖给当地游客,通常一天也不过赚个一美元。而今天当然是他的幸运日。
出于感激(又或许是他的商业直觉?),哈金打算以二十卢比把剩下的珍珠都卖给我们,多做几桩生意。之后他把价格降到十卢比。最后他把剩下的珍珠全都以成本价卖给我们!
到这个时候,所有人都喜爱哈金,也都称赞他(其他的小贩例外)。我们手中串串的廉价珍珠让我们忘不了与这八岁机智小孩的短暂邂逅,这是我们对海德拉巴的珍贵回忆。小哈金有著不屈不挠的精神,因此能在印度最穷困的邦国生存;即使我们离开了这个地方,内心感触的波浪还是一波一波涌来。

附加的多媒体:
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Tuesday, 30 January 2007

印度最有人緣的生意人

他亮出那明朗燦爛的微笑時,牙齒所閃爍的光澤一如驕傲伸展的手中所展示的珍珠。他的名字叫哈金(Hakim)。在印度第六大城海德拉巴(Hyderabad)令人印象深刻的史蹟查米納(Charminar)一帶,他可能是最好的生意人。海德拉巴是印度安達拉邦(Andra Pradesh)的首府,當地有75%的人口都很貧困。而哈金只有八歲大。
海德拉巴以鑽石和珍珠聞名,哈金則利用此一名聲,販售仿珠給遊客來賺錢。他拿給我一串珍珠,開價一美元。我婉拒的時候他反而笑得更開,將珍珠舉得更高、更靠近我的臉。他明亮的雙眼始終與我視線相交,而他不斷地懇求:「買我的珍珠。」
我蹲下來跟他聊天,問他的名字,試著以語言、表情、手勢來跟他溝通。哈金盡力以他僅知的幾個英文字回應我,笑得更加開朗,而且一直在我眼前搖晃那串珍珠。他燃燒的雙眼和滿溢的熱誠終於軟化了我,而我付了一美元買下一串珍珠。
他馬上又展開另一波攻勢要賣我第二串,這次要價只有一半!我叫我的同伴過來,他們也很快就為哈金所擄獲,開始買他的珍珠。街上的其他小販看他如此成功,都皺起眉頭發牢騷,試著要把他趕走,但微笑哈金可不會讓步!
他也是個很有道德的生意人。他的銷售行為完全透明。我們問他每串珍珠花多少錢買來,他坦白告訴我們「五盧比」或「十一美分」!所以他在我們身上獲利甚豐。對此他顯然很驕傲,顯然也信任我們能夠了解他的處境。哈金多數的珍珠都以十到二十盧比賣給當地遊客,通常一天也不過賺個一美元。而今天當然是他的幸運日。
出於感激(又或許是他的商業直覺?),哈金打算以二十盧比把剩下的珍珠都賣給我們,多做幾樁生意。之後他把價格降到十盧比。最後他把剩下的珍珠全都以成本價賣給我們!
到這個時候,所有人都喜愛哈金,也都稱讚他(其他的小販例外)。我們手中串串的廉價珍珠讓我們忘不了與這八歲機智小孩的短暫邂逅,這是我們對海德拉巴的珍貴回憶。小哈金有著不屈不撓的精神,因此能在印度最窮困的邦國生存;即使我們離開了這個地方,內心感觸的波浪還是一波一波湧來。

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我要訂人籟



Tuesday, 30 January 2007

From NGO activities to My Inner Journey

An interview with eRenlai Editor Sarina Yeh

"Living in this chaotic world, I try to remind myself every single moment that we should live for the present and offer whatever we can without hesitation." -- Sarina

Renlai: Sarina, you have been involved in NGOs activities all around Asia for quite a while. Could you tell us how it all started?

Sarina: Almost 8 years ago, I decided to take a trip in Vietnam and I ran into a French social worker who was taking care of AIDS patients around Hanoi. I was told by him about many situations in south Asia, which brought up my interest in traveling more. Afterwards, I took another trip in Cambodia and I was looking forward to finding something I could contribute myself. My interest was education but I didn’t want to work for any NGO. I spent every night on the streets to look at people and figure out what I could do there. One night, it was raining, and I eventually found a shop in Phnom Penh run by the director of an orphanage called “Future Light”. Next morning, I visited the orphanage, checked it out on my own, and then decided to get involved with it and tried to find a way to support them.

Renlai: You have been especially active in India and Nepal, and caring there for orphanages. What motivates you in a special way in this range of involvements?

Sarina: I learned a lot from the director of Future Light Orphanage in Cambodia. I remember she told me that she has dedicated herself to the orphans because she came to realize during 10 years in refugee camp how important children are for a country. They have roots! And that was why, no matter how difficult the finance was, the director did a lot of efforts to hire two professors from the Royal Art School to teach kids the traditional dance. She said,"Those who don’t know their own culture are real orphans."
I continued going back to Cambodia for three years and tried my best to promote the silk production made by the widows and big kids living in the orphanage. This was the beginning of my one-person NGO life. And after these experiences, I shifted my focus to Nepal, which is also one of the poorest countries in the world. I can say that I always find something to do when I travel. I don’t like to be a typical tourist. So wherever I go, I always make some efforts to find my own volunteer-job. The first one I did in Nepal was to offer massage I learned from my Chinese doctor to doctors and nurses after finishing their jobs. I did it in a hospital supported by a Tibetan Buddhist Monastery. And later on, I was introduced to a local lady who had been taking care of girl orphans. That was how I started my educational project in Nepal. I have been involved with these little girls these years and I especially focus on girls because I know how terrible their lives can be if they don’t have any skill. All kids from poor families can be sold to brothels or factories. This is a very heart-breaking situation to me. So I especially pay attention to poor kids and I hope that they can be treated in a humane way.
During my volunteer life, I have encountered some independent volunteers who work in Nepal and India with similar insight and concept. We believe that every single person can make a change and we also realize how important it is to share or exchange information and experiences. Working for an NGO is not the only way you can contribute yourself to people. To me, sharing all resources plays an essential role. And it is what I call conviction.
Over these 3 years, I have been trying to spend two months a year in Nepal or India for the orphans I got to know there. And the more I stay there, the more I feel how precious it is to be human and how lucky I am. Being capable of giving is an extra gift in life! I am very grateful to those whom I can give a hand for the most beautiful teaching they have given me – being satisfied with whatever I possess.

Renlai: Still, you are not forgetting Taiwan. Taipei remains your place of work, and I know you attach great importance to the international formation of Taiwanese youth. Could you tell us more about your work in Taiwan and what you think Taiwan can contribute to Asia and to the world?

Sarina: I have been working in the non-profit field for ten years. In Taiwan, I especially concentrate on blind kids. I was sad to see them accepting a second-class education. So I tried to create some educational projects for them and also led people to know more about their situation. I love to interact with the so-called handicapped and see how they overcome the obstacles and show us their courage and bravery. I used to bring them to some school to have panel discussion with so-called normal kids. Due to these activities, I came to realize how great if we can always exchange the way we look at the world. Deep and open communication is a platform to understand each other’s differences.
As I said, children are our roots and we need to listen to them and respect what they think about. This is what I always remind all parents I know. The educational system has been changing in Taiwan. The blind have more options when they study now and it’s a very profound step to me. I know Taiwan is not a perfect country but which one can be? The more I travel, the more I feel Taiwan is a good place to live. Many people here are capable of reflecting on their behavior and minds, then trying to swim up the stream and create some alternative ways to live, to teach, to learn and to give. The treasure of Taiwan is the people.
However, I hope our young generation can be more brave and open-minded to go after their own dreams and look at the world with more perspectives. Traveling while doing volunteer job is always a good way to learn about the world and this is what the Asian young generation should try.

Renlai: You are not only what is currently called an “activist”. You are indeed involved in spiritual quest. Is it possible for you to share something about your inner journey?

Sarina: Bingo! I think the way I am is not just because of what I encountered during the past years.
When I was a kid, I saw my father treating people generously and I probably sensed the joy he had so I unconsciously followed up his way. But I didn’t have any conviction when I took any action. Until a few years ago, I ran into Dalai Lama’s teaching in India by accident and what he said was truly engraved in my mind – the true meaning of life is to contribute ourselves to the others. In short, it’s what we call compassion. But the greatest information in that teaching is: we should not be compassionate without wisdom. Then what is wisdom? In Tibetan Buddhism, wisdom means to face the problems. I confront with, deal with them and let them go. So we won’t get affected by the problems or get exhausted and confused by them. If we can be compassionate with wisdom, we doubtlessly can enjoy giving or doing when we do without any expectation, which means we won’t be down if the result is not like what we expect. We will just enjoy what we do and I think it’s a great and fundamental attitude when people are working as social workers.
Besides, I also learned that we sometimes judge what we see because of our huge ego. Without it, life is more peaceful and we can regard everyone equally, which is the foundation of peace-making. So many conflicts occur to us because we look at the world with duality. We lose the insight to see what is happening in the gray zone. I was taught by one Buddhist monk that we need to digest what impermanence is and then we will realize that everything is changing all the time, which is the only truth of life. And we can discover uncountable possibilities of life if we live with this idea.
By the way, I also like the idea of warrior in Tibetan Buddhism, which leads me to break the old pattern of concept about life and to be a braver person with courage. In short, all I learned from the great masters is to give and to live without fear. And this life attitude makes me feel truly joyful when I am able to make those who are suffering relieved.
Living in this chaotic world, I try to remind myself every single moment that we should live for the present and offer whatever we can without hesitation. Since everything is the reflection of our minds so it’s very important to keep our minds simple and pure. Looking at my mind and figuring out the middle way when I deal with what I am doing is my inner journey.

Renlai: And how did you become involved in eRenlai?

Sarina: It’s because of Thibaut. Then I met Benoit and listened to his ideals on how we can make a change by spreading out more positive information. Of course, I was convinced by both of them and became one of the team members.
Due to my experiences in the poor countries, I always feel that we lack real discussions and debates in Asia about many key issues. To carry on the responsibility of media, we need to create more materials which are meaningful and profound. To be honest, I am always curious about how many people feel sick of any magazine which only focuses on gossips or fashion, but I know some of them are definitely looking for something else. Creating a cross-section discussion, sharing what we learned and exchanging the information are the attraction for me to work for eRenlai.

Renlai: What do you think eRenlai can bring to the global community?

Sarina: eRenlai can provide more perspectives on many subjects to the global community and it can make us more aware of what is happening in some areas that local communities are not familiar with. That’s why it’s very crucial for eRenlai to build up extensive networks and encourage every one of them to cover or share the issues occurring in their own regions.

Renlai: In order to build up the network of eRenlai you traveled throughout Mainland China this summer. What struck you in a special way in the people you encountered there?

Sarina: During my trip in China, most of the people I encountered were young and knowledgeable. I am amazed by their dedication to social improvement. As we know, China is becoming a profit-driven society and I am really glad to see some young and talented people taking action with compassion. Of course, they all confront some difficulties and barriers, plus, bureaucracy, but I guess some of them will be finding the solution. To encourage more young people to get involved with social issues, I hope that more experienced experts can contribute their ideals to Mainland China and perk the young’s heads up.

Renlai: You are especially at ease in English and seem to use it preferentially to any other language, including Chinese. Do you think that English can be "globalized" or “asianized” without any problem, or do you sometimes feel that the use of English hinders the surge of a genuine Taiwanese, Chinese or even Asian way of expressing one’s experience? More generally, what does your rich and diverse linguistic background teach you about intercultural communication?

Sarina: It’s hard to answer this question. I get used to speaking English from my working experiences. I haven’t studied abroad but I had many opportunities to interact with foreigners, especially Europeans. I don’t know if English can be globalized or asianized but I can say most of the interesting information I receive is in English, which means this language is the best tool for me to get to know what is happening in the world. Using English gives me the benefit of being able to jump into intercultural communication. But at the same time, I have to say that I have encountered many Asians who can speak fluent English without any idea about cultural or social issues. Or they just lack life experience, so you feel the communication is kind of empty. For me, language is just a quite useful tool. The meaning of communication, however, doesn’t rely on language but on the way you think. Sometimes, I think we can go through language barriers but we can’t cross the different ways we look at the world.
I remember that one pioneer in the development of E-book in Taiwan said: "Even in language, some are so powerful and some are so weak.” Doubtlessly, so far, English is the most powerful and strongest one. It is a truly useful tool to build up the bridge between my cultural background and the western one, and to lead me to understand tremendous subjects and differences among diverse cultures.

Attached media :
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Tuesday, 30 January 2007

The spiritual roots of action

matrix_lotus_enWhen I was a kid, I saw my father treating people generously and I probably sensed the joy he had in doing so; so I unconsciously followed up his way. But I didn’t have any conviction when I started to involve myself in volunteer work: A few years ago, I ran into Dalai Lama’s teaching in India by accident and what he said truly engraved in my mind – the true meaning of life is to contribute ourselves to many others. In short, it’s what we call compassion. But the greatest information in that teaching is we should not be compassionate without wisdom. Then what is wisdom? In Tibetan Buddhism, wisdom means to face the problems. I am confronted with, deal with them and let them go. So we won’t get affected by the problems or get exhausted and confused by them. If we can be compassionate with wisdom, we doubtlessly can enjoy giving or doing without any expectation, which means we won’t be down if the result is not like what we expect. We will just enjoy what we do and I think it’s a great and fundamental attitude for people acting as social worker.
Besides, I also learned that we sometimes judge what we see because of our huge ego. Without it, life is more peaceful and we can regard everyone equally, which is the foundation of peace-making. So many conflicts occurred to us because we look at the world with duality. We lose the insight to see what is happening in the gray zone. I was taught by one Buddhist monk that we need to digest what impermanence is and then we will realize that everything is changing all the time, which is the only truth of life. And we can discover uncountable possibilities of life if we live with this idea.
I also like the idea of warrior in Tibetan Buddhism, which leads me to break the old pattern of concept about life and to be a braver person with courage. In short, all I learned from the great masters is to give and to live without fear. And this life attitude makes me feel truly joyful when I am able to make those who are suffering relieved.
Living in this chaotic world, I try to remind myself every single moment that we should live for the present and offer whatever we can without hesitation. Since everything is the reflection of our minds so it’s very important to keep our minds simple and pure. This is the way I am trying to lead my inner journey...

 

 

Monday, 29 January 2007

網路與亞洲「同舟世代」

近期美國《新聞週刊》的報導創造了一個新詞──「同舟世代」(We generation),用來描述許多亞洲年輕人的轉變:他們積極參與公眾事務、投身非營利組織與慈善活動,不再一心只想著賺錢。對於環境保護、人道援助、救助孩童與邊緣團體等等的推動,他們都展現了豐沛的創造力與無私的熱忱。從印尼、泰國、尼泊爾到中國大陸,我們都能看到這些年輕人的身影。

對於這個年輕世代的新走向,我們不應過於吹捧。「同舟世代」仍在成形的階段,實際的行動者還是有限。不論在亞洲或全世界,消費主義、個人主義和物質至上主義仍是年輕世代的主流價值。然而,許多年輕人關注的焦點有可能開始從「小我」轉移到「大我」,形塑一種新的歸屬感與群體責任感。果真如此,那真是一個大好消息。

亞洲新興的「同舟世代」有兩個特色。第一個特色同舟世代重視覺醒與有效的行動:年輕人不再依照外在既有的期待來決定「為什麼」或是「做什麼」,他們的行動有的來自對大環境的危機感,有的是與朋友互動後的省思,有的因為發現問題、進而探索。從這個角度來看,這些年輕的行動者比前輩有了更好的落實配備,使得他們的行動更有意義,也更加柔軟:因為只有慷慨是不夠的,還必須具備反省的能力;只有反省是不夠的,還必須將眾人的慷慨與自身的能力轉為有效的行動。

第二個特色是同舟世代懂得運用網際網路「串連」在一起。有的人逃避現實生活,上網追求「第二生命」,但網路也讓真實世界的群體彼此連結,形成「虛擬社群」。從地方到全球,從全球到地方,思考者和行動者使用網路分享心得,凝聚力量;參與者傳播自己的故事與經驗,使得本身參與的草根團體的行動得以擴大層面,發揮更深遠的影響力。

在這股力量向前推進之際,「e人籟」希望扮演推動者與先鋒的角色。在十八個月的籌備過程中,這股亞洲新興的社會文化趨勢是e人籟創立團隊關注的焦點,因為它引導今日亞洲年輕一代的論辨與行動。

《人籟論辨月刊》第35期的專輯分兩個部分來探索這個趨勢:第一部分呈現e人籟的精神、架構以及科技上的新特色,讓創立團隊的成員在這裡他們的想法,並邀請讀者成為e人籟的好朋友。第二個部分反思亞洲網路社群的發展趨勢,例如Web2.0熱潮、網路運動實例的探討,以及非營利組織網路空間的瓶頸與突破之道。

為了迎接人籟/e人籟更廣的讀者群,在第35期專輯中我們第一次將某些文章以中英文雙語發表。華人社會若在人道發展、全球治理及永續發展扮演要角,那麼最大的關鍵就是讓台灣、中國大陸以及其他地區的年輕人有更多的交流。華人社會在邁向這些宏大的目標時,人籟/e人籟期許自己能夠貢獻小小的心力。


我要訂人籟


Monday, 22 January 2007

Think, Share and Act

"We live in a time when the widespread distribution of key knowledge components is essential for sustaining our development. If we want to win the challenges that our planet is facing we need to empower grassroots organizations with solutions to pressing problems, so that they can lobby their communities for urgent changes. Different communities throughout Asia encounter very similar problems caused by rapid development."

Tibo

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Monday, 22 January 2007

虚拟社群.真实互动

【李礼君 整理】

一位是卑南族的首位原住民主教;一位是泰雅族裔的神学院院长。
他们同为原住民的基督宗教领袖,为部落文化传承而耕耘不辍。
在族语复振、部落自治、原民政策及教会角色等重要议题上,他们的对话引人深思…

原住民族语能否复振?如何进行?

高:族语流失是全球趋势 政策仍有待加强

原住民语言的消失,是全世界面临的共同问题。曾有语言学家推估,短短五十年间,大概有两、三千种语言会消失。这是全球化的问题,台湾原住民自然也不例外。随著与外界接触日益频繁,原住民的文化也不可能永远不受到挑战。但是,不可讳言的,过去执政党五十多年的汉化政策,使得原住民语言出现严重断层,这是使族语加速流失的一大因素。记得童年时期,在学校讲方言是要被罚跑操场的。被罚的人一边跑,还得一边说:「我不讲方言」,整个教育体系也都是汉化教育。
如今,政府好不容易开始推动母语复振,但诸多措施仍是有待加强。例如,族语老师每小时的钟点费只有两百多元,单是交通费都不够,要他们如何生活?每周只有一、两个小时的课程,也不可能有多大的效益。
我认为,母语复振应该由家庭著手,教会也是重要的力量。另外,学校的母语推动业务,应该要由专职人员来负责,才能有持续性的效果。

曾:族语流失势难挡 教会行动最积极

今日,五十岁以下的原住民,几乎都无法说流利的母语。长久以来,由于学校教的都是国语,原住民的孩子,只要一进入国小,母语的学习就被冻结了。部落里的老人家虽然会讲母语,但年轻人和老人家相处的时间也很有限。在这样的情况下,母语怎么可能不消失?除非原住民所有部落皆全力推动母语,甚至在家里也强制说母语…但这也是不可行的,因为在日常生活中,大家一定是自然而然地使用最普遍的语言来沟通。这是最大的难题,也是无奈的事实。
在台湾原住民各族当中,阿美语消失的速度大概会是最慢的。因为阿美族约有十四万人口,是人数最多的一族。而且,他们即使是生活在都会区,不论在公共场所或家里,还是常常使用阿美语交谈,我很佩服他们。在过去,我们如果想在公共场合讲母语,还要先小心翼翼地环顾左右,因为怕被别人取笑。但现在,比别人多学会一种语言是很令人骄傲的,能够说三、四种语言的人,更是了不起。不过,现在社会的歧视虽然已不存在,但族语却失去了传承的条件和环境。
在族语复振方面,教会一向相当地积极。例如,由于教会的长期努力,卑南族原住民大部分都能够透过罗马拼音来阅读族语。虽然,政府现在也透过政策来鼓励母语复振,学校也设有族语课程,但是一周只有一、两堂课,而且都是选修,并不具有实际的效果。而教会则是一直都在进行母语传承的扎根工作,例如在部落中的天主教会,每个月总会安排数次「族语弥撒」;许多投身部落牧灵的神职人员,多年致力于族语辞典编纂、口传文学保存等工作,为部落留下了可贵的传统资产;有些正在推动母语的部落,其师资也大多是教会工作者。若说教会比学校更为积极复振母语,似乎并不为过。

部落自治,是美好愿景还是空中楼阁?

高:应聆听部落声音 勿视原住民为政治筹码

这是政府和人民必须共同面对的问题。诚然,许多法律上的改革,底层民众不容易感觉得到,因为和他的生活似乎并没有直接的关联。他们最关心的,就是生存下去、好好地教育孩子。但是在民主国家,原住民的法律位阶是很重要的,因为这会影响整体政策的走向。所以,这方面我倒是并不担心。我真正担忧的,是在基本的法律之下,具体的实施内容为何?
再者,法令制定的过程中,主要是由学者专家、公职人员、法律专家为主。其实很多原住民并不了解何谓「自治」,但它却是影响原住民未来生活蓝图的基本法律。因此,我最担心的是:政府和这些菁英关起门来,自己在设想原住民未来想要的生活。政府应该要真正走进部落,聆听部落的声音,包括自治区、产业发展、观光、宪法专章…等议题,都应该拿到部落好好地谈。在这方面,原住民知识分子要负很大责任。
在法令制定方面,我自己也参与其中,我们民间版的自治条例已经拟好了。但这仍是不够的。不能让政策的讨论,只把持在政府和专家学者的手上。如果只是政府和专家关起门来做决策,那不是和旧政府一样吗?新政府已经第二任了,应该要做得更好,要真正去聆听原住民的声音,而不是一直把原住民当成政治筹码。

曾:选举语言大于实质 如何实施才是正题

当年,阿扁在竞选总统时,曾经对原住民许下承诺,例如「新夥伴关系」、「准国与国关系」…等等,但这些话好像只是「愿景」,未来如何实施才是真正重要的课题。另外,对原住民来说,「部落自治」、「宪法地位」都是比较抽象的名词,除了知识分子之外,一般的原住民不太了解,也不太容易参与讨论。因此,我认为这些美好的「愿景」,仍是选举语言的成分居多。希望原住民的民意代表、朝野诸公,能在这方面多加努力。
谈到自治,在欧美各国已有许多原住民自治区,他们是如何进行的?会遇到什么样的困难?这些都要真的去观摩、去研究。当然,不同的国家、民族、其时空背景、地理及人文条件都不尽相同,但其中必定有可参考借镜之处。这些都需要我们更加努力。否则,即使原住民能够迈向自治,但若我们不知如何管理,这条路走到一半,也是可能会跌倒的。

对原住民政策的期许与建言?

高:政府应辅导支持 让原民成为山林守护者

过去,因为原乡没有工作机会,原住民只好到都市谋生。现在,由于政府的鼓励及补助,有些年轻的原住民愿意回到原乡,凭藉著部落里的好山好水,自己经营一些事业。如此的意义当然非常好。但其中有一个问题:大部分的原住民其实并不谙于行政文书,以致于懂得申请的人,得到的资源越来越多;而不谙文书、又没有「背景」的人,往往得不到好处。因此,政府应该有全面性的辅导和支持。
例如,原住民其实是最佳的山林守护者。政府应该制定相关政策,让原住民成为巡山员、巡河员,担负保护山川、杜绝非法滥垦、防范森林火灾…等任务,不仅可以提供原住民更多在地就业机会,更可保护全民免于缺水、土石流等灾害。这些都可以进行,而且对大家都有好处。政府应该要主动的予以全面辅导,而非只有在「重点乡镇」实施,也不应该坐在办公室里等待人家来申请,否则,就会变成只有少数人才能受惠的不公平状况。

曾:重视部落人才培育 支持教会事工

近年来,政府推出许多政策,希望能够拉近城乡差距,让部落发展自己的特色和风貌。无论是在硬体建设、文化特色、产业发展等方面,可说都有了一些进展。但我认为,外来的力量毕竟只能提供一些资源或推力,部落里如果没有自己的人才、自己的领导者,就会产生资源浪费、分配不均、成效无法持续…等状况。因此,我认为部落人才的培育是最重要的。除了开设课程之外,也必须有适当的经费补助,让原住民可以较无后顾之忧地学习,否则在生活的压力之下,他们参与的意愿不会很高。
另外,政府也应该对教会的部落事工,予以关怀和支援。许多天主教的神职人员,数十年来和原住民共同生活,对部落有很大的贡献。可是,教会团体若想要申请些许补助,来为部落进行更多服务,政府却吝于支持。政府应该要了解,五十年来,若不是教会的长期陪伴与服务,及对原住民心灵上、文化上的关怀,政府不知还要投入多少资源来做这些工作。例如,目前在许多部落里,每当乡公所、市公所要办活动,常是乏人问津;但如果是教会要办活动,只要神父讲一句话,所有的人都来了。这表示,教会是真正在部落中扎根,持续地关怀原住民的团体。对于教会人士在部落的事工,政府实在应该多一些关怀和协助。

原住民的「黄昏」之后,是黑夜抑或曙光?

高:黄昏警语 催生原民运动

二十多年前,孙大川所提出的「原住民是黄昏的民族」,如同先知警语,唤起了许多原住民的忧患意识,提醒大家必须起而捍卫自己族群的地位。过去,许多有一半原住民血统的「半原住民」,从来不承认他自己是原住民;但到了现在,就连只有三分之一血统的人,都认同自己是原住民。这表示原住民的地位已经有所提升,使得一些原住民愿意重新回归自己的身分。若没有当时的呼吁和抗争,不会有今天的成果。
长久以来,台湾原住民过著与世无争、与大地和谐共存的生活。但后来,来自日本、中国的政权侵入了原住民生存的土地,使得原住民渐渐失去了姓名、语言,也失去了民族的尊严和自信。过去的旧政府,甚至不承认我们是台湾原住民,而说原住民是中国的少数民族,企图用汉化政策来同化、压抑原住民。在白色恐怖年代,泰雅族知识分子乐信·瓦旦(林瑞昌)曾说:「如果我们不能管理自己的土地,而让政府抢走,原住民将成为颓废的民族。」长老教会也有这样的呼吁:「今日你不承认自己是原住民,明天就是你的末日。」这和孙大川所提出的「黄昏」警语,其用意是相同的。

曾:警钟之鸣 唤醒文化复振

对于当年孙大川所提出的「黄昏」一语,我相当认同。因为在当时,许多原住民青年为了家庭,不得不到都市去讨生活,在那样的状况下,他们自然无暇顾及语言和文化传承的问题。长久下来,他们的子女也已经习惯都市生活,更不会关心自己的语言文化是否会消失。要是大家再不正视此一问题,原住民的语言和文化势必步入黄昏。
令人感到欣喜的是,近年来,有些原住民青年已经开始觉醒,他们开始「寻根」,要把自己的传统文化复振起来。在他们身上,我们似乎看见了一丝曙光。我常常思考著:如果年轻一辈的原住民,只知一味地追随主流社会的价值,对自己文化的宝藏弃若敝屣,那就是我最担忧的。因此,对于他们的觉醒与努力,整个社会应该都要鼓励、支持,使他们能够持续下去。

------------------------------

【玉山神学院长高万金】

高万金,泰雅族人,族名布兴·大立,目前担任台湾基督长老教会玉山神学院院长,多年投入台湾原住民运动,曾于新竹尖石地区牧职多年,著有《原住民的台湾认同》、《宁死不屈的原住民》。

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Monday, 22 January 2007

虛擬社群.真實互動

Paper presented at the Convention
‘Globalization and its Challenges in the 21st Century’
Hong Kong, July 26-28, 2001

Introduction
Are Chinese ethics compatible with “global ethics?” A response to this question heard from many scholars belonging to the realist perspective - in China or in the West - is that there is no such thing as global ethics. Claims to the contrary, the argument goes, are simply rhetorical devices buttressing institutions of global governance such as the United Nations and some of the practices that many of its members support. As such, global ethics are seen as a very thin veneer with which great powers want to cover their national interests. In the current context, for example, a practice associated with global ethics such as “humanitarian intervention” is viewed as a charade ignoring Chinese concerns, and as the expression of Western imperialism. This criticism receives approval in the West by scholars such as Samuel Huntington (1996), who argues that there exist irreconcilable differences between the “West” and “China.” This paper, however, takes a very different approach and questions the false dichotomy implied in this debate. It considers Western and Chinese ethics as discursive formation shaped historically by social and political factors, not as unchanging essences, and therefore argue for the possibility of achieving over time a “background consensus” on global ethics. In that respect, this paper acknowledges its debt to the ongoing dialogue between Jurgen Habermas and Chinese intellectuals on global ethics. (Xu 2001)
Read entire article in PDF

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Monday, 22 January 2007

完全付出.无惧生活

“Network”, it can be said, is a loosely used word that refers to loosely structured ways of exchanging information, supporting each other and/or leading common actions. It links people and groups at various levels, local or global, sometimes for their own mutual benefit, sometimes in the interest of a cause that transcends and unites the members of the network.

The reach and efficiency of networks has been greatly enhanced by the Internet. This might be partly because the Internet allows for horizontal relationships, and that horizontal relationships are very much at the core of networking, distinguishing networks from other organizational structures.

Exchange of knowledge is another characteristic of networks. This is already true of “social networks”, exemplified by the Old Boys associations. For sure, social networks primarily provide emotional and cultural support, but they constitute also the port through which information that might help one to change one’s career path or get valuable tips on the stock market are exchanged. Information becomes even more central when we come to what can be labeled as “knowledge networks”: this kind of networks is basically a space for discussion that helps to determine research directions (for an academic community) or action strategies (for an association of people and groups committed to a social or environmental cause for instance.) For putting it another way, it is only within knowledge networks that “information” truly becomes “knowledge”, i.e. is crystallized into a body of consistent and mutually reinforcing assumptions. It is also within knowledge networks that knowledge receives a meaning that leads a group to enact value judgments and maybe to decide on a course of action.

The need to connect together scientific assessments, policymaking and grassroots activism explains the spread of knowledge networks. Also, the globalization of issues such as environment, violence, international trade and workers’ rights induces people to connect to groups that share similar concerns in various cultural and political contexts. International networks are partly a product of the eroding power of the Nation-State, and partly a response to the increased influence of other players, such as multinational companies.

Willemijn Verkoren has identified a few conditions under which knowledge networks can function correctly (International Journal of Peace Studies, 11-2, 2006). I rephrase here in my own way those that seem to me more important:
1) The network does not exist in isolation; exchanges going through the network and real life activities are linked in a sustainable way.
2) The purpose of networking is clear, as are the possibilities offered by the network and the limits of what it can achieve.
3) Capacity for learning, room for discussion, and openness in membership, discussion and sharing are requisites for the efficacy of the network.
4) While being able to operate autonomously, the network must be linked to a wider environment, to enable it to give and to receive.
5) Results of the interaction have to be visible at some stage.
6) To facilitate and moderate a network requires time and expertise.
7) Finally, the flexibility of the network helps it to facilitate exchanges, action and empowerment without trespassing over its boundaries, rather than aiming to become an all-encompassing knowledge system.

In the field of social action, there might be not stronger incentive to the spreading of the knowledge network model than the concerns raised around the sustainability of our economies and the current world governance system. The debate on climatic change shows that scientific conclusions are themselves reached through the nurturing of a permanent network of information and debate. The policy debate is nurtured by different (and often diverging) networks of citizens, experts and companies. Interconnection between these groups helps to go from traditional lobbying to innovative networking, and the growing debate on facts and values is conducive of such interconnections. Technical expertise is not sufficient for tackling such a broadly-shaped issue, and groups of citizens will continue to debate on consumption models, the resurgence of values such as frugality and solidarity, hopefully advancing towards formulations and insights that will develop a cultural model in line with the technical imperatives linked to the issue at stake. The mobilization of cultural resources for nurturing sustainable development - a mobilization achieved through a dialogue on core values, sharing of success stories and exchange of strategic analyses - is exactly what a knowledge network might want to achieve.

Maybe it would be useful for all of us to reflect on the following questions:
- What are the knowledge networks that I am presently engaged into?
- Are these networks akin to my real interests and current concerns, or should I try to engage into new ones?
- May I possibly be active in a web of relationships that could happily develop into a real knowledge network, sharing information among its members and with other networks, provided that I encourage the group to take the necessary steps for becoming more reflexive and participatory?
- What kind of knowledge networks does my environment need, and may I be instrumental in fostering such alliances?

May our online interactions and our real life activities follow more and more the model sketched here, so as to overcome the feeling of impotence that often overwhelms all of us. Our participation in some kind of knowledge networks should encourage us to become active citizens of a world whose destiny will finally be determined by the quality of the networking we enter into and the course of actions that naturally follows.
International Institute for Sustainable Development: about knowledge networks

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Monday, 22 January 2007

完全付出.無懼生活

近期美国《新闻周刊》的报导创造了一个新词──「同舟世代」(We generation),用来描述许多亚洲年轻人的转变:他们积极参与公众事务、投身非营利组织与慈善活动,不再一心只想著赚钱。对于环境保护、人道援助、救助孩童与边缘团体等等的推动,他们都展现了丰沛的创造力与无私的热忱。从印尼、泰国、尼泊尔到中国大陆,我们都能看到这些年轻人的身影。

对于这个年轻世代的新走向,我们不应过于吹捧。「同舟世代」仍在成形的阶段,实际的行动者还是有限。不论在亚洲或全世界,消费主义、个人主义和物质至上主义仍是年轻世代的主流价值。然而,许多年轻人关注的焦点有可能开始从「小我」转移到「大我」,形塑一种新的归属感与群体责任感。果真如此,那真是一个大好消息。

亚洲新兴的「同舟世代」有两个特色。第一个特色同舟世代重视觉醒与有效的行动:年轻人不再依照外在既有的期待来决定「为什么」或是「做什么」,他们的行动有的来自对大环境的危机感,有的是与朋友互动后的省思,有的因为发现问题、进而探索。从这个角度来看,这些年轻的行动者比前辈有了更好的落实配备,使得他们的行动更有意义,也更加柔软:因为只有慷慨是不够的,还必须具备反省的能力;只有反省是不够的,还必须将众人的慷慨与自身的能力转为有效的行动。

第二个特色是同舟世代懂得运用网际网路「串连」在一起。有的人逃避现实生活,上网追求「第二生命」,但网路也让真实世界的群体彼此连结,形成「虚拟社群」。从地方到全球,从全球到地方,思考者和行动者使用网路分享心得,凝聚力量;参与者传播自己的故事与经验,使得本身参与的草根团体的行动得以扩大层面,发挥更深远的影响力。

在这股力量向前推进之际,「e人籁」希望扮演推动者与先锋的角色。在十八个月的筹备过程中,这股亚洲新兴的社会文化趋势是e人籁创立团队关注的焦点,因为它引导今日亚洲年轻一代的论辨与行动。

《人籁论辨月刊》第35期的专辑分两个部分来探索这个趋势::第一部分呈现e人籁的精神、架构以及科技上的新特色,让创立团队的成员在这里他们的想法,并邀请读者成为e人籁的好朋友。第二个部分反思亚洲网路社群的发展趋势,例如Web2.0热潮、网路运动实例的探讨,以及非营利组织网路空间的瓶颈与突破之道。

为了迎接人籁/e人籁更广的读者群,在第35期专辑中我们第一次将某些文章以中英文双语发表。华人社会若在人道发展、全球治理及永续发展扮演要角,那么最大的关键就是让台湾、中国大陆以及其他地区的年轻人有更多的交流。华人社会在迈向这些宏大的目标时,人籁/e人籁期许自己能够贡献小小的心力。

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Monday, 11 December 2006

不一樣的結婚紀念日

今年的六月十二日是汪洋與小帆的結婚十一週年紀念日。那天中午我們正在煩惱要去那兒吃飯的時候,忽然樓下有人按鈴,原來是送蛋糕的。我們告訴他可能送錯了,我們沒有訂蛋糕,尤其是訂這種名貴的藝術蛋糕。送蛋糕的人把地址和收件人逐一唸出,當聽到「汪洋」的名字時,我們立刻就明白這是某位在監中與我們通信的朋友所贈。汪洋和小帆正是我們擔任通信員的化名。我們在驚訝中收下了蛋糕,也看到「阿誠」的祝賀詞和簽名,心中感動不已。

阿誠是去年年底出監的,我們已經半年沒有聯絡,但是他仍然記得在我們結婚紀念日的時候送來蛋糕,可見他是何等重視我們的情誼。去年與他通信的時候,可能在信中有向他提到我們結婚十週年的事,所以他就記得這個日子。還有,我們一直是用真實地址與阿誠通信,所以他也知道我們的住址。

在此必須說明的是,阿誠是之前一位監友阿泰介紹而直接與我們通信,並沒有經過希望工作小組的轉介。阿泰則是因為我們曾去探監,而從探監資料上知道我們的真實姓名和住址,甚至身分證字號(因為探監時必需核對身分證,這是獄方的規定)。不管是阿泰或阿誠,我們都絕對相信他們,因為從他們的信與文字中所流露出來的,是一種患難中誠摯的真情。我們沒有見過阿誠,去年八月我們去宜蘭看他的時候,剛好遇到星期六,按規定不能會見訪客。

ocean_02阿誠是個很聰明的年輕人,大概不到三十歲。他寫信的字跡非常工整,而且在監中通過電腦技術的鑑定。他說他在國中以後就沒有再讀書了,因為學校的種種對他而言是痛苦的回憶。也許他是教育體制下的犧牲者,不是他不想上進,而是環境使然。阿誠家在萬華,黑道很快吸收了他,還有他的弟弟。阿誠告訴我們,他是因為擁有火力強大的烏茲衝鋒槍而入獄。在與阿誠通信的兩年中,我們對他沒有很多的勸誡,也沒有很多的追問,只是用一種分享的態度陪他度過在監的孤單歲月。

臨出獄前,阿誠寫了一首詩給我們:
「事事不求我無慾,冷暖自知任風雨,
花紅百日有落時,難行之路又何懼。」
望著桌上愛心形狀的精美蛋糕,還有上面一大一小的兩支蠟燭,我們全家為這位未曾謀面的阿誠弟兄祈禱,希望他一路走去平安順利。

Monday, 13 November 2006

Savouring Italy

Learning to love another culture constitutes a form of risk taking. For Purple, who comes from Nantou in central Taiwan, entering the world of Italian cuisine has been most rewarding... Wisdom is about tasting and discerning - and knowing the flavour and savour of things is certainly a fruit of wisdom.
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"Chianti’ in Taipei

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