Black, red and gold: harmony in Jogja

by on Thursday, 04 March 2010 7899 hits Comments
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There tends to be a higher level of social cohesion in societies where there is near uniformity on religious beliefs. For example if everyone thinks that stealing in any circumstances is wrong; then stealing in any wrong. If a new or reformed version of a different religion comes along and claims that stealing is ok, so long as it's stealing from the rich to give to the poor, then we have a Robin Hood dilemma. Various other examples of moral uncertainty often lenick_baliad to arguments, hatred, unneccesary death, religious repression and conflicts. Alas in the modern, globalised world we are confronted with this dilemma; most communities are becoming more religiously diverse, and this trend shows no sign of reversing. And thus the neccesity of progressive, deeper interreligious dialogue, understanding and diplomacy.

Indonesia is one of the most religiously diverse countries in the world. Although its over 80% Muslim, there are huge communities of Hindus, Protestants, Catholics, Bhuddists and various indigenous Animist religions. That said, Indonesia is no panacea of religious and cultural harmony, indeed there are many inter-religious and inter-ethinic conflicts ongoing, particularly in the regions further from the centre; however, beneath the questionable reputation abroad, and a sputtering of regional conflicts, there are many admirable examples for other parts of Indonesia and much of the world of how to be united by diversity and plurality with loose common aims of development and peace. Some examples in Indonesia also demonstrate to sceptics the universals present in Islam which allow for a very tolerant framework based on a few less disputable religious values.

The ever popular tourist destination Bali is one example of traditional Hindu culture, which whilst being an integral part of the Indonesian republic maintains a large degree of autonomy from the national government on cultural and religious issues. Huge amounts a of unique cultural resources, accompanied by the help of tourist dollars Bali Island has maintained a strong self-identity and a wealth of cultural resources.


nick_yogyakarta2[dropcap cap="T"]he culture of tolerance in Yogyakarta or "Jogja" as the locals call it, is particularly strong. The pillars in the Emperors palace in Yogyakarta represent the three colours of the different major religions which have greatly influenced Yogyakarta and Javanese culture: The Black, Gold and Red symbolise the harmony and synthesis in the old Javan kingdom, of Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism respectively. Jogja is also full of Muslim, Christian and non-affiliated universities, some of them even have their own institutes focusing on inter-religious dialogue, and though other regions aren't always as successful as Jogja at realising a multicultural friendly environment, Jogja sits in the middle of Java as a symbol of a freer, more harmonious future. In fact the only beliefs not so welcome in Jogja are the fundamentalists and anything that tries to make the citizens conform, such as those that apply restrictions on quotidian religious and creative freedoms. Differences are welcomed with interest.[/dropcap]Due to its role in the formation of the Indonesian republic, Jogja was granted a degree of autonomy during the repressive Suharto era (1965–1998). Therefore it found itself assuming the role as the comparatively tolerant liberal hub. The tolerance doesn't just stop with the religious freedoms and it fully embraces various cultural influences and modern arts, preferring to add depth, character and variety to its heritage. If one searches around Jogja just looking at the walls, bridges etc, it nevernick_yogyakarta3 takes too long to notice the political murals and the sheer energy put into expressing ones creativity in this city. The activist, artivist energy, has been providing education and civil resistance through art around the city and activities in the surrounding areas as well as up and down the country where integration isn't always so strong (often with villages or towns divided specifically on religious grounds, usually muslim/christian) from the times of the great poet Rendra standing up to the New Order up until the present day.

Though it is not always the case elsewhere in Indonesia, in Jogja not only does religion fulfill a role in maintaining social order, but it is also a place of abundant intercommunity dialogue. The poor seem relaxed and without bitterness and everyday actions are filled with a set of moral distinctions which tend to be easy to follow. Furthermore their is a sense that they all are all children of God, who through various social and economic backgrounds have adopted slightly different paths in search of the ultimate truths; that there are also universal 'goods' present in all the major religions here.
Last modified on Tuesday, 20 May 2014 16:52
Nick Coulson (聶克)

I was born in sunny Torbay on the south western coast of England's green and pleasant lands. I'm prowling the streets, parks and ruins of Taiwan hunting for absurdities and studying the sociology of the underground. Furthermore with our nomadic arts and action space "The Hole" we attempt to challenge rigid and alienating structures.


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