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Friday, 06 February 2009 01:34

Remembering Master Sheng Yen

This morning I prayed for the followers of Master Sheng Yen.

Master Sheng Yen’s passing will be mourned by many in Taiwan and throughout the world—including his many friends and admirers in the Catholic Church—but it will be feIt especially by his disciples.

I prayed that his disciples might be comforted as they adjust to the painful departure of their beloved Master. Even good Buddhists, whose beliefs and practices help them overcome their desires and emotions, are still human beings and need time to process the loss of someone so close and important to them as Master Sheng Yen.
But I prayed especially that these students and disciples of his might continue the work and spirit of their teacher. Master Sheng Yen had a unique, humble, and effective way of imparting wisdom and peace to others.

We met many years ago on the set of a TV talk show hosted by Lee Tao and broadcast live by CTS on Sunday noon. I was a bit nervous because I had never spoken with Master Sheng Yen and was worried that I might not understand his Buddhist terminology, or that I might inadvertently say something inappropriate and offend this revered Buddhist teacher.

But my fears were unfounded. After a few minutes of conversation and discussion, I could sense Master Sheng Yen’s profound good will and gentle warmth. He smiled at the stories of my sometimes awkward experiences in Buddhist temples or with Buddhist friends. He nodded approvingly when I related how Zen meditation had become an important part of my spirituality and prayer life. He shared my desire that religion play a leading role in improving the moral life of the people and the healthy development of society.

As the program was ending, after bidding good-bye to the audience, Master Sheng Yen rose and came towards me. I felt drawn to him like a magnet and had to restrain myself from giving him a big, Italian-style hug. (I know that Buddhist monks are very restrained in physical expressions of affection.) Still, he reached out and grasped my arms in a warm expression of friendship. And there we were, before a large TV audience—a Buddhist monk and a Catholic priest—locked in an embrace of mutual friendship and respect.

There were many others happy meetings and experiences with this extraordinary spiritual leader. After our program at CTS, Master Sheng Yen visited us at Kuangchi Program Service to learn how TV programs are produced. I was honored to join him in his multi-media campaign on "protection of the spiritual environment" ("心靈環保"). He chose Kuangchi to help him produce his TV program series. Last year, once again he came to our studios to film a series of TV commercials on social morality.

That was the last time I saw my good friend and mentor—Master Sheng Yen. Even while suffering from kidney disease, he had the same bright spirit, peace and warmth that has inspired so many.

So I hope you will understand and forgive me if I permit myself a few tears as I pray for this spiritual Master and all his followers, asking my God that He keep the bright light of Master Sheng Yen shining on us in this world, as he passes on to another.

Photo courtesy of KPS

 

Monday, 02 February 2009 19:34

阿啄仔學台語

民國五十七年,阿啄仔(註)第一次住在台灣,只學了一句台語──「我m̄知影」。那時候,阿啄仔在台大「史丹福中心」學國語,和所有外國人一樣,住在小中國所在的台北──話說當時的台北,彷彿是國民黨經由想像建立的小中國。我的老師多半是北平人,一直說北平如何比台灣好。房東則是上海來的商人,家裡講的是帶很重上海口音的國語,阿啄仔和老師們總是模仿他們,笑他們「不標準」的國語。
和今天的中國一樣,當時一聽到美國人講國語(那時候在台北,「美國人」和「外國人」是同義詞),台灣人立刻會有所反應。記得有一次,阿啄仔在碧潭橋頭逆流游泳,順流來了三個年輕男人,划著獨木舟。阿啄仔有點擔心他們沒注意到自己,就從水面下大聲喊:「小心!」船划過去的時候,阿啄仔聽到他們對自己說:「你的國語講得很標準!」
我們那時雖然一直笑國民黨的口號,如「消滅萬惡毛賊,實現三民主義」、「反攻大陸,解救同胞」(當然沒說「解放」),又笑他們反對匪諜的宣傳(二十年後忽然想到,民國五、六十年代的台灣,一定有了匪諜),但我們還是只把台灣當成小中國,沒觀察到有台灣這個地方的存在。
台語是一種非常難學,甚至是外人學不到的方言,連言語中所指的是男是女,都不能分辨。除了「我m̄知影」以外,當時要聽到台語,簡直像是洋人看京戲──在那時候的台灣,可能得說是「洋人看平劇」,因為「京」字是共匪的話,意指中國北方最大的城市。
儘管阿啄仔有這樣的背景,但當時誰想得到,沒幾年以後,竟出現了一個學台語、會台語、愛台語的阿啄仔?可是,這個變化不久就形成了。

覓得良師事半功倍

阿啄仔在民國五十八年夏天決定攻讀人類學博士,而且,要跟著老師選擇台北縣三峽為田野工作的地點。所以民國六十年夏天,阿啄仔回到台灣做第一次田野工作。那時阿啄仔還不會說任何台語,訪問鄉下人只能說國語,再請台灣福佬助手翻譯成台語。不過呢,因為每次訪問的內容都差不多,阿啄仔逐漸能說幾句台語,如「恁兜拜祖先,拜幾代?」或「恁老爸(或老母、阿公、阿嬤)叫做啥仔名?」奇怪的是,一般日常會話阿啄仔幾乎都不會說,學術方面的用語更不會,只會說這些。
之後,阿啄仔知道自己要長期在台灣做博士論文的田野調查。那時在史丹福中心,有一位很著名的台灣歷史學家──王世慶先生,他同意教阿啄仔講一點台語,於是阿啄仔每個禮拜去他家上兩次課。
但是,到底怎樣學台語最好呢?阿啄仔沒有任何教材,所以自己想辦法:每次上課前,阿啄仔都先用中文寫詞彙單給王先生,讓王先生可以用台語單字核對。而且,王先生kā guá教台語,kap別ê老師無仝款。比如說,阿啄仔寫「地方」,一般的老師會給阿啄仔念「tē-hng」,讓阿啄仔以為用台語說「place」要講「tē-hng」。但是王先生給阿啄仔說,台灣人不說「地方」,攏講「所在」。聽了王先生的解釋,阿啄仔就會用自己發明的拼音法,在單子上寫「suotsai」(sóo-tsāi)。過了幾個禮拜,阿啄仔開始和王先生進行簡單的對話。民國六十一年,阿啄仔帶牽手ka查某囝仔轉來台灣,台語已經有一點基礎。

常聽常說進步長足

可是,開始做田野,阿啄仔訪問人,還需要請人翻譯。而且,莊腳人彼古,大部分不識華語,如果是會曉台語以外e語言,大概是日語,ma認為外國人e日語一定比台語卡好。有一次,有一e庄內的老酒鬼,一聽到阿啄仔學人類學,就說:
「人類学を勉強して?山の中に住んでいて人を『生番仔』と言わない。」(你學人類學?不要把住在山裡的人叫做「生番仔」。)
阿啄仔足客氣kā問:「何と言うて良いですか?」(要叫什麼才好呢?)酒鬼講:「高山同胞。」每天講,每天聽,阿啄仔開始有進步。
後來發生兩件大代誌,攏幫助阿啄仔學擱khah緊。第一是翻譯e少年家去讀大學,找別人找無,只好自己做訪問。第二,查某囝仔破病足濟擺,驚寒天會khah嚴重,牽手kā伊娶轉美國,阿啄仔足稀微,愛人作伴,所以就愛去找住ti庄內ê人,台語越學越緊。
阿啄仔記ka足清楚,六十一年正月時仔,有一陣仔天足寒,暗時仔阿啄仔住ti厝內寫筆記無伴,想beh出外口找人作伴。看隔壁間ê門ti開,內底有幾落ê老歲仔坐ti hia te講話。阿啄仔坐落去,開始惦惦仔聽,過一陣仔開始插嘴。Buē記li講外久。想起來,老歲仔講ê大代誌,攏是這ê所在ê古早ê大代誌,講ê人攏是已經過身e人,但是阿啄仔竟然全部攏聽有,阿啄仔ê台語會凍講是已經出業。但是可能kan-na高中出業,因為布袋戲猶原無啥會曉聽。Khah無采e是,後來阿啄仔轉去美國,這方面就khah無進步,布袋戲kan-na會曉聽一半。

鼓起勇氣克服自卑

那麼學語言的藝術在哪裡?阿啄仔認為,學語言的關鍵並不在藝術,而在其他幾方面──其中一項無疑是天賦。阿啄仔認識很多人,雖然他們的腦筋都很聰明,學習的態度也都很認真,但他們卻都特別不擅於學外語。阿啄仔年輕的時候,很瞧不起這些人,以為他們可能在態度或能力方面有弱點。但是,後來阿啄仔逐漸發現,缺乏學外語的天賦是無奈、永遠改進不了的事;而且我們有學習外語天賦的人,應該同情那些沒有外語學習天賦的人。
不過,說實話,養成這樣同情的態度很難,因為學外語那麼好玩,那麼容易,那麼有用,你真的學不會嗎?或者只是不敢學?或其實是因為必須透過精神分析才能發掘的理由,而不願意學外語?阿啄仔應該坦白,對沒有語言天賦的人缺乏耐心與同情,是阿啄仔自己的倫理弱點。
除天賦之外,阿啄仔認為成功學習外語,有一些自己可以控制的原則。第一項原則對任何人學任何外語都有效:千萬不要怕講錯。學外語一定會犯錯,如果犯了錯,最殘忍的後果會是甚麼?別人會笑他們嗎?笑是表示快樂的行為,學外語的人講錯,通曉這種語言的人笑,並不代表他們看不起學外語的人。別人會誤解學外語的人言語中的含義嗎?這還比學外語的人像啞巴,不給通曉這種語言的人可瞭解或可誤解的意思來得好呢!最殘忍的事可能不在通曉這種語言的人的反應,而在於學外語的人內心的自卑感。但這樣的自卑感不僅完全能夠控制,而且是一定要克服的事。願意學好外語的人一定要控制它,克服它,不然一步都不能進。

獨門絕活打開世界

第二項原則是專業性的原則,只對非語言學家的外國人學台語才有效:最好不要看課本,而且不要學台語聲調制度,因為這種制度太複雜。阿啄仔有一個朋友,也是美國的人類學家,他花費了很多心力學台語,最後還是失敗,只能說:「我聽無。」這位朋友說國語還可以,阿啄仔認為他的錯誤在於把台語讀成一門課,用課本背台語有幾個聲調(六個或七個,阿啄仔buē記e,百分之九十九的台灣福佬人也不清楚):他努力背哪種聲調在那種上下文變成哪種聲調,講起話來像樂團指揮,兩隻手揮來揮去,但幾乎說不出任何能讓人聽懂的聲音。
第三項原則是最廣泛的原則,也是學任何外語的所有人都應該注意的原則:多說!多看!多聽!多寫!外語是打開另一個世界大門的鑰匙。但是這柄鑰匙要是不用,鎖很容易卡住,導致大門不好開;鑰匙放久不用,鎖更會生鏽,讓那扇門更難開。
可惜的是,一般人無法學阿啄仔學台語的方法。阿啄仔的學習方法是個人的、獨一無二的,很難轉給別人用。阿啄仔認為,學外語並不是藝術,而是工具,是技術,是歡樂,也應該算是義務。阿啄仔只希望每個人都能培養自己的學習方法,都能夠像阿啄仔一樣,體驗學外語的歡樂,使用外語為工具,並培養學習外語的技術,讓自己能夠打開不只一個世界的大門。

註:根據教育部「台灣閩南語常用詞辭典」,「阿啄仔」讀音為「a-tok-á」,意指「老外、洋人」。因洋人鼻子高挺,故以「啄」(tok)代稱洋人。通常寫成「阿兜仔」或「阿斗仔」。



本文亦見於2009年2月號《人籟論辨月刊》

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附加的多媒體:
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Sunday, 01 February 2009 02:47

斯拉夫語的天地

隨著時代變遷,學俄語的理由已從狹隘的外交事務
轉為商業、媒體、科技、資訊等多種領域。
作為全世界主要語言之一,它的地位日趨重要。

陳美芬 口述
李禮君 整理

我在讀大學之前,從來沒接觸過俄語。因為喜歡外文,就選填了政大東方語文學系俄語組,也就是「斯拉夫語文學系」的前身。或許因為當時的政治氛圍使然,我們沒有俄語教科書可用,教材都是老師影印給我們的,還要求我們不可以告訴別人是誰印的。親戚朋友得知我在讀俄語,都會說:「你將來要當外交官嗎?」當時,大家絕對不會想到除了外交,讀俄語的人還有其他工作可以做!

斯拉夫語 就業正夯

一九九一年蘇聯解體後,狀況有了很大的改變,我國和俄羅斯的交往也變得頻繁。所以,我們便於一九九二年升格為俄語系,去年更改名為斯拉夫語文學系。一方面符合國際性的學術定義,另一方面因應全球化時代的人才需求。我們目前提供俄文、波蘭文、捷克文和烏克蘭文的課程,之後可能還會提供保加利亞文和克羅埃西亞文課程。這些語文的文法和發音都比較接近,若先學了俄語,要再學其他語文就容易得多。
近年來,社會大眾已漸漸感受到斯拉夫語在發展上的爆發力,因為我們學生就業狀況非常好,每位研究生幾乎畢業時都有三、四個工作機會,包括在資訊科技、製造業、貿易、新聞、翻譯、國際事務等領域。

俄羅斯風情之美

在課程設計方面,我們非常重視文化的培育。除了語言,也會引入對該國國情的認識,如風俗習慣、文化藝術、政治、經濟、社會等等。但相對於其他外語,俄語確實比較困難,且在台灣的接觸機會相對更少。所以我們讓大一學生每週都會上到俄籍老師的課,可以直接對話。到了大三大四,我們會強烈鼓勵同學到俄羅斯或其他斯拉夫語系國家去學習。今年有四十位同學在國外,其中有公費補助,也有自費前往的。
此外,每年我們都舉辦「俄羅斯風情夜」,由俄籍老師指導學生表演戲劇,大家都非常認真投入。劇本由老師撰寫,而背景、表演、舞台、服裝…等都由學生一手包辦。

語言反映精神思維

俄國算是世界上最大的國家,它的文化非常多元,人民素質很高,精神思維非常深刻。或許是因為地理和氣候環境的影響吧,他們對於人心、人生的思考和我們亞熱帶國家非常不同。
他們的思考方式和精神生活,也反映在他們的語言中,例如俄語的文法特別難,詞彙特別多。例如「杯子」,就有十二種語格,在不同的地方用不同的語格,單數六個,複數六個。所以俄語非常精確。動詞方面,俄語有副動詞、行動詞、被動行動詞、主動行動詞…而且動詞用法除了時態,還有分主詞的不同。例如「吃」這個動詞,是用在「我吃」、「你吃」、「他們吃」…字尾都不一樣。
進入俄語的天地,讓我知道世界有不同的面向,也更懂得珍惜。台灣是個很方便、富裕,氣候宜人的國家,但我們對自己的土地卻沒有像他們那麼珍惜。他們的人民對國家的認同度非常高,而且對於大自然懷有深深的熱愛。例如在假日,他們願意坐很久很久的火車,到「夏日小別墅」去生活,沒有電,沒有水,在那裡種菜,到河邊散步,去森林採蘑菇…幾乎每個人都有這樣的習慣。有錢人的夏日小別墅會比較舒適,但一樣是要體驗大自然,並回到人的原始生活狀態。就算經濟再如何發達,他們還是會想保存接近自然的生活方式。對台灣人來說,可能會覺得只有古人才會過那種生活吧!

【關於斯拉夫語系】
斯拉夫語(Slavics)是印歐語系的一個語族,全世界使用人口超過2.5億。最早的斯拉夫語,是在九世紀由拜占庭帝國的希臘傳教士聖濟利祿與聖梅篤丟斯(Saints Cyril and Methodius)將斯拉夫方言發展改進而成,為古教會斯拉夫語(old church slavonic;亦稱old church slavic),如今在斯拉夫民族的一些教會中仍然被使用為禮拜儀式語言。斯拉夫語可分為東斯拉夫語支、南斯拉夫語支及西斯拉夫語支。使用斯拉夫語的國家有波蘭、捷克、斯洛伐克、塞爾維亞、克羅埃西亞、馬其頓、白俄羅斯、烏克蘭等等。



本文亦見於2009年2月號《人籟論辨月刊》

2009_02想閱讀本期更多精采文章,請購買本期雜誌!

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Saturday, 31 January 2009 08:15

神的聖言

透過奮鬥與對決,我的藝術探索如同靈修探索一樣湧探海洋的深處。

靈性的修行與水墨畫的實踐是通往心靈自由的兩條路。我一方面受到神學的啟迪,一方面隨著水墨畫的領悟,我逐漸明白兩條路通向同一個地點。從我的畫看得出追尋的過程。當我的內心整合為一,畫品往往攀高。當我被繁複的活動攪得雜亂無章,心靈的困頓同樣反映在作品上。

涼山夜色與雅各伯的兩個夜
涼山的探索是我心靈進程的重要階梯。涼山的諾蘇人大多過著卑微的生活,被社會視為邊緣人。我和一些諾蘇朋友做研究,完成計畫,他們表現出卓越的能力與知識份子的涵養。雙方的探索如今仍是現在式,讓我反省自己的宗教認同,以及我所屬宗教的意涵與表達。我看到的不只是「邊緣」的認同,這份認同得到新的定義與確認,我看到的是不斷變動中的認同,對我來說格具意義與興味。
涼山和諾蘇人成為我的創作主題,帶給我很深刻的轉變。創作變成一個和環境、團體息息相關的行為,而不只是個人的內在體會而已。我受到這個民族潛移默化的洗練,創作的行為取自歷史的向度,具有時間的軸向,作品的厚度來自主題的深度,彷彿我「參與」畫中的體驗。
有一天,「涼山夜色」的標題忽然浮現腦海。當我再次品味這些畫的時候,我又忽然感覺自己來到〈跳下深淵〉一文中雅波克河的河洲上。某方面來說好像與一個民族同在苦山裡,在飽受敵視的社會環境中一起奮鬥。繪畫是先驅。

深流的跌宕在我內雕築
對我來說,繪畫意味著莊嚴,具有「本質」或是「基本」的面目。繪畫是靈修探索與藝術探索兩者逐漸合一的結果。換句話說,繪畫是一種面對,不是逃避負擔或是生活中的壓力。
繪畫是情感的表達,但不僅止於靈修生活的表面而已。即使細緻而敏銳的觀察翻湧靈修生活的大海,「情感」依舊是靈修生活的海沫。靈修生活的性體是有節奏的起落,而繪畫是海洋深處湧流的回音,深流的跌宕難以捉摸,漸進在我內雕築。並不是我作畫,是神在我內作畫。我畫出轉化我的一切,我轉化成我畫的一切。
塵土中,雅各伯一攻一守,搏鬥的「他者」一退一進。搏鬥是跳一回舞,作畫是一場戰役。作品流動,神在我內誕生。神在我內誕生,作品誕生喪我。律動,探索,作品日漸成熟,正如在河洲上渡過黑夜。我被黑夜驅逐,邁向神的白日。神在我內,我在神內。誕生,再誕生。黑夜裡出現雙重的誕生,低吟化入宇宙中簌簌聲,邁向神的降臨,邁向大日子的恩寵。聖神在肉身,肉身在聖神。作品在孤寂中誕生,作品顯現聖,顯現生生。

繪畫的語言湧自神的聖言
循著直覺的路,大家或許可以明白我所說「繪畫語言」的基礎。作品在動與靜、滿與空、賦彩與留白、濕墨與乾墨、簡潔與豐厚、寬廣與凝聚之間,經由意念或是情感的傳達塑造而成。
作品表達的語言不只是一個中介,不只是一個與外界溝通的方式,它是透過搏鬥的欲求所孵育的生命。若沒有生的奮鬥,若沒有生者完成的幾段故事,幾齣劇目,作品這樣的語言不過流於平白的堆砌。繪畫的語言湧自神的聖言,在我內誕生。當語言在我內誕生,我生存的真理在世界上誕生。
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Friday, 30 January 2009 21:59

學外語是一種遊戲

在陌生的音節語調裡,我想像自己被注進了新的靈魂。
翻越那重重的人際與文化之牆,
我聽見那屬於全體人類、抑揚交錯的美妙交響曲。


Friday, 30 January 2009 07:18

辭典的時光隧道

在語言多樣的今日,我們需要辭典,更需要完備的辭典。《利氏漢法辭典》是世界上第一部最大型的漢法辭典。這部辭典宛如一棵樹,樹根的一端伸向法文的沃土,另一端探進中文的沃土,同吸取雙方的養份。我們越吸收這部辭典的語言養份,我們將越懂得創造人類維度中文化、精神與藝術的高峰。

魏明德 撰文

如果世上只存在一個語言,或者說,面對語言的多樣性,我們拒絕聆聽他人的語言,我們不需要辭典。這般兩極的情況,在巴別塔的神話中,有著一致的闡明。
相反地,辭典的出現,是進入語言演進所做的一種賭注,同時證明了一個重要的體驗:溝通並不代表放棄母語,更不是棄絕滋養雙方思想的智慧。相反地,雙方在語言與語言間做出一種賭注,因為思想的引入、豐厚,方能在彼此的交流、推進中,品味真理的味道,就像品嚐美味的果實一般。

曲折路上結碩果

回想《利氏漢法辭典》(Dictionnaire Ricci, Le Grand Ricci)委員會最後召開的日子,似乎無法為工作列車踩煞車。那時的會議室在一間屋子裡,正對著一座園子。整個會議過程進行得相當困難。大辭典的工程在動工四十五年後,整個計畫近乎難產,甚至面臨無法結束的地步。最後我們要做的決定,全是最具爭議的議題。
中場休息的時候,我到園子走走,面對所有種種的複雜問題,不禁心生氣餒。園子的中央長著一棵雪松,我在這棵樹前面駐足片刻。我欣賞著它樹身的伸展,枝葉的多采,品味著和諧的味道:它一筆線垂直地伸展,同時伴隨著組成一體無數豐富的細部。那時我想,這般的工程如此豐繁、完美、自然,直達頂峰;而我們可憐的大辭典,儘管也是相當豐饒,卻歷經苦痛,在極為曲折的情況下成長。
仔細想想,這番體驗令我稍感寬慰,因為若要形容辭典工程的推動過程,我找到一個貼切的比喻:這部雙語大辭典宛如一棵樹。它像兩股巨型的根,一端深入法語的沃土,一端探進中文的沃土,同吸取雙方的養份。這份沃土是語言、源流的沃土;它是中文字義的多樣性,隨著幾世紀光陰的沉澱菁華;它是法文敏銳與精準的高度展現,網羅住中文用語最細膩的表達。如此,大辭典立於高峰之巔。所謂高峰,說明了人類思潮在語言地平線的開拓,藉由字彙與用法的獨特性,顯示出人性的普遍性。大辭典的枝枒垂著人類文化智慧結成的美味果實,等待讀者採收與品味。

文化交流歷史見證

利氏學社是為了紀念利瑪竇(Matteo Ricci)成立的機構,寄望延續利瑪竇對中西文化交流的貢獻。西元一九九九年,利氏學社先推出《利氏漢法大字典》(Dictionnaire Ricci de Caractères Chinois)。
這本字典以大型開本問世,透過三千六百頁呈現漢語中「字」的演變:從甲骨文、金文到最新的演變,共收錄一萬三千五百個單字。凡是好奇翻閱這本辭典的人士,不難發現內文中發音為「ㄊㄤ」者,最為常用的是「湯」,本是做青銅的合金,後做「熬」;一開始先是被引用作為動詞,意為「用滾水洗」,再被引用為「晃盪」,而後出現「放蕩」之意。這一個字同樣還能用來表示醫學的湯藥,或是碉堡的護城河。因此,這部辭典雖然表面上看來頗為嚴肅,實際上可找出一連串的字謎遊戲、古怪的詩,以及智慧的諺語。這本大字典可說集合漢語字、中華精神面貌以及中國觀的百科全書。
《利氏漢法大字典》是《利氏漢法辭典》的序曲。《利氏漢法辭典》計有七冊,不僅僅匯集了漢語單字,更收錄三十萬組漢語字詞,達一萬兩千頁,重十五多公斤。《利氏漢法辭典》正好是一段文化交流的見證,這段歷程要回溯到四百多年前。
從「簡短的歷史」來看,《利氏漢法辭典》是耶穌會傳教士與所屬研究員,花費五十多年的心血所完成的成果。從「長遠的歷史」來看,耶穌會傳教士從一開始即表現了對中華文化、語言與文學的愛好,這般熱情很快就藉由辭典的編纂傳達出來。早自西元十六世紀末,利瑪竇與羅明堅(Michele Ruggieri)早已開始用心地比較中葡語言用法的異同。第一本漢法辭典是西元一六二六年金尼閣(Nicolas Trigault)神父研究的成果。而最有名的法漢辭典是西元一八八四年由顧賽芬(Seraphin Couvreur)神父所出版的《法漢辭典:漢語最常用的慣用語》(Dictionnaire Français-Chinois contenant les expressions les plus usitées de la langue mandarine),共計一千二十六頁。顧賽芬神父另外又出了兩部辭典,同是今日漢學家研究的參考資料。

煙硝戰火不眠不休

西元一八九九年,戴遂良(Léon Wieger)神父出版《中國字:字源、字形與辭彙》(Caractères chinois: étymologie, graphies, lexiques),可說是《利氏漢法辭典》的祖先。傳教士對辭彙的研究熱誠似乎無法遏抑,西元一九○四年,德貝斯(Debesse)神父出版《漢法小辭典》(Petit Dictionnaire chinois-français)。即使在中國史上最混亂的時期,陶德明(Charles Taranzano)神父還是在西元一九三六年出版《數學、物理與自然科學字彙》(Vocabulaire des sciences mathématiques, physiques et naturelles),以兩大本問世。
漢語持續演進,加上考古上的新發現增進人們對古字的瞭解,使得耶穌會傳教士在編纂辭典的路上不斷往前推展。中日戰爭期間,杜隱之(André Deltour)神父以及巴志永(Henri Pattyn)神父進行中法對照辭典的編輯工作。在同一個時期,匈牙利馬峻聲(Eugene Zsamar)神父構思了更驚人的計畫,他預計把辭彙的資料庫用百科全書的方式,編輯漢語和五種外語辭典:計有匈牙利語、英語、法語、西班牙語以及拉丁語。西元一九四九年後,這樣的計畫若沒有耶穌會士不眠不休的投入,實在難以持續。同年,馬峻聲神父與杜隱之神父在澳門會合,帶著兩百本烽火中搶救回來的辭典。

漢法團隊綻放異采

五組的語言研究團隊先在澳門動工,繼而移到台灣。三十幾位耶穌會士,和二十幾位以中文為母語的合作研究員圍在轉動的圓桌前工作,桌上堆滿了各種參考用的字典。他們先從漢語辭典著手,格外具耐心地切割、整理漢語的定義,並依照翻譯成的語言,重新編排各種外語的詞彙。他們匯集兩百萬張字卡,分門別類放在紙盒裡。修改的過程透過不同的團隊交錯進行,同時組織得法。然而,這樣的工程還是比原先預期來得浩大。期間,有的神父過世,遇到財源匱乏的困境,還有不少耶穌會士轉向牧靈工作。
在甘易逢(Yves Raguin)神父沉著的領導下,漢法辭典團隊是最為穩定的團隊;一九九八年,甘易逢神父八十六歲在台北的隆冬過世,但仍有五、六位耶穌會士忠誠地留守職位。其中最有名氣的,莫過於雷煥章神父(Jean Lefeuvre),他是世界級的甲骨文研究專家,一直在甲骨文研究領域扮演活躍的角色。
儘管辭典的工作拖延不斷,也歷經低潮時期,七○年代還是出現初步的成果。一九六六年,台北利氏學社在甘易逢神父的領導下創立,他更新漢學研究的團隊,繼續大辭典的編纂工作,出版了兩本中型規格的辭典:《漢法辭典》與《漢西辭典》,油印版的《漢匈辭典》後來也如期完成。
八○年代末期,我們將《利氏漢法辭典》轉到電腦,我們得以編輯越來越龐大的資料庫。在趙儀文(Yves Camus)神父的推動下,我們將匯集的索引與字彙分為兩百個專門學科,分別為太空學、佛教、物理、動物學等等;巴黎利氏學社主任顧從義(Claude Larre)神父為這些專門學科邀請漢學家組成團隊,一步步進行校對工作。電腦檔案的資料在十年期間,不斷在巴黎與台北兩地往返,我們動員了兩百位專家與漢學家,一直修改到最完美的境地。西元二○○一年,正是利瑪竇定居北京的第四百週年,《利氏漢法辭典》終於問世。

發現差異尋找意義

辭典從無到有過程中,我們深深體會到根源與高峰是最重要的事。文化根源告訴我們沒有任何一個普遍性的思潮或是創作不是來自語言用法與歷史兩者的獨特性。就高峰這個問題,哲學家海德格(Heidegger),繼詩人賀德琳(Hölderlin)之後表示,雙方必須立於高峰與高峰才能做出最好的交往,因為在一定的距離之下,比起凝聚雙方共同的高度,空間阻隔雙方的因素反而顯得不那麼重要。沒錯,辭典是我們進行的「基礎」,從獨特性的長期整理出發。然而,辭典是一部能夠提出一個哲學視角的作品,因為它證明了「追求真理」並沒有與「追求溝通」相背離,而首要之務在於語言間的溝通。
一旦我們願意溝通,我們必須觸及不同文化的字彙中所隱藏了不同的智慧與世界觀,我們必須知道不論是生活用語、社會結構、人與自然的關係、邏輯思維等等皆存在相當大的差異。對於同一個字彙,漢語、法語或是匈牙利語的表達都不一樣。因此,我們必須從不同文化再次檢視並欣賞雙方所擁有的資源,並且「發現」雙方文化的差異,以及不同文化資源的多元面貌。當我們從字彙去思索彼此的差異時,這個過程中自然產生「意義」。
運用辭典的過程中,我們更將發現當代與傳統的不同,並透過他方文化的語言與眼光,我們投入對自身的傳統資源「質疑」、「詮釋」與「再發現」的過程。在這般一重塑的過程中,我們得以重新建立個人的歸屬與價值觀,朝向高峰發展。

沃土深處樹端滋味

辭典是活的,隨著時代的演進而演進,辭典也隨著時代有了新的面貌。《利氏漢法辭典》簡體版如今在北京商務印書館與世人相見。未來,利氏漢法辭典的出版所匯集的資料,將因應新的技術,調整轉換介面到新系統,往後十年將朝向光碟版或是網路版的發行。

跨文化交流的目標,在於讓人更有人味。熱愛語言的人,想必能夠因為這份熱愛而說出自己的困頓、夢想、疑慮、欲求,並做出決斷。我們必須從東西方文化交流中的刻板印象中脫身而出,我們必須注意「全球化」是否簡化語彙與影像,無視於耐心的本質,抑制了根的生長。樹根探入沃土深處,樹梢才能生長至頂端。我們堅持將《利氏漢法辭典》出版工作進行到最後,顯示出翻譯是一項非做不可的工作。真正的翻譯是真正地喜愛與瞭解,這是跨文化交流的胸襟與生命。《利氏漢法辭典》所見證的不僅僅是一個已完成的工作,更是一個未來的夢想。

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Friday, 30 January 2009 07:12

現代巴別塔

現代巴別塔--學外語的藝術

根據舊約《創世紀》記載,人類為傳揚自己的名,「免得被分散在全地上,」開始燒磚砌石,準備建一座通天高塔。上帝遂變亂人類的口音,使他們無法溝通,高塔於是停工。「多語言」因此成為神對人的懲罰,「巴別塔」象徵人類的狂妄自大。

2009年,全世界約有六千八百種語言(註)。但根據目前語言消失的速度來估計,到21世紀末,全世界的語言種類將只剩不到一半──現今語言消亡的速度是鳥類瀕絕速度的四倍。看來,要捍衛語言多樣性,可比維護生物多樣性更加困難。或許這正是巴別塔的奧祕──過去,上帝藉著多語言破壞了人類的計劃;今日,以千百種語言之磚搭建而成的「現代巴別塔」卻成了人們學習的天堂,與致力保存的對象。

於是,巴別塔不再是咒詛,而是祝福:多樣的語言,使我們得以透過不同的方式述說自己的故事,使各種文化、藝術與精神思想皆擁有獨特的表達面貌。語言的差異確實使得溝通變得困難,但即使是與那些和我們說著相同語言的人們,溝通又何嘗無礙?

新年的第二個月,《人籟》願與您共同展開「現代巴別塔」的探索旅程,並邀集各路旅伴,分享不同語境中的學習體驗以及翻譯文學家楊牧和林水福為不同語界的文學作品架設匯通之橋。而大型辭典的編纂者,為了人類彼此理解而付出最大努力,做出了最佳歷史見證。

對很多人來說,語言如同一項工具,但它的功能不應使我們忽視它的藝術性與美學意涵。語言帶領我們進入一個個殊異而美麗的文化,過程中充滿愉悅、挫折,更有數不盡的挑戰與驚奇──因為當我們進入一種文化,就像掉入一段戀情,任自己在其中轉化、改變、成長…

我們仍在建造的,至今尚未停歇。但它不是通天高塔,而是一座座色彩繽紛的橋。

圖作 Slavomir Valigursky (www.stockxpert.com)
圖作 Kriss Szkurlatowski (www.sxc.hu)


關於世界上共有多少種語言,說法紛歧。1979年德國語言學家的統計是5651種,根據國際自然及自然資源保護聯盟的評判標準來計算,約有六千八百種,其中有一千六百多種語言目前正面臨滅絕的危險。
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附加的多媒體:

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Friday, 30 January 2009 04:55

A Zulu song

Brenda sing a song in Zulu called "Shosholoza".
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Saturday, 24 January 2009 06:09

Speaking the language of the other

Three Spanish teachers in Taipei, Jose, Miguel and Orlando share their experiences of learning foreign languages, including Chinese.

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Friday, 23 January 2009 18:28

Creativity and Team Spirit

Just before Chinese New Year, I had the opportunity to listen to the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics, Dr. Albert Fert who was then visiting Taiwan. Fortunately, he was not speaking about his field of expertise, in which case I certainly could not write an editorial based on his speech… No, he was rather asked for the words of wisdom you are expecting from well-known and well-established scientists. The strange fact is that I found his speech inspiring indeed, not because of his eloquence (he seemed rather reluctant to speak…) but rather because of the parsimony of his statements, which was giving more weight to the ones he seemed to really believe in.

There are two things that Dr. Fert said, which I associated in my mind. The first one was that imagination is the foremost virtue for a scientist, as in all other fields of human activity. You do not know where your ideas are coming from, he said (do they come from listening to music, painting or photographing, or other reasons?), but you definitely need new ideas, ideas that you are going to test afterwards – and only imagination can provide you with new ideas. The second statement that drew my attention was about team spirit: in his youth, he loved to play rugby, and, till now, he had the feeling that his laboratory was like a rugby team in which, he stressed, “all learn to suffer together.”

Now, I find rugby a very adequate metaphor for any kind of team work – be it a laboratory, a publishing outlet, a start-up, a community radio… Of course, you can substitute rugby with any game that is played with a ball and two teams, as the same rules always apply: you need to make the ball circulate quickly, to coordinate your efforts, to enjoy the fun of acting together, to celebrate when you win and to persevere when you fail… You need to distinguish among players, according to their specific qualities and functions, and yet to be able to substitute one for another if a special situation arises; you need to have a hierarchy of roles and yet to experience a spirit of equality; you need openness, freedom and friendship…

Now, here is my point: I see a strong relationship between imagination and team spirit. I know that, in general, imagination is rather associated with individual qualities. However, in sports, the great teams are the ones who display imagination, so as to surprise their competitors and embark on a variety of strategies. When playing together is fun, the team enhances each player’s imagination; freedom and friendship within the group make new ideas endlessly rise and be tried.

So, I have decided that if Dr Fert got the Nobel Prize it is because he learned to play rugby in his youth, and still continue mentally to play rugby in the cocoon of his laboratory. More important, he taught his team to enjoy playing rugby along with him in sunshine as in rainy days. May we all learn to combine creativity and team spirit, even if eventually we do not receive a Nobel Prize!

 

Cerise has a different view of rugby, read her article
Tuesday, 20 January 2009 04:09

Finding Words for Christianity in the Far East

 

The encounter between Christianity and East Asian languages, cultures and nations took place, for the main part, in the larger context of the confrontation between Western expansionism and societies meeting with a number of crises. The original conditions of the encounter still partly determine the relationship between Christianity and East Asian languages. However, this relationship was shaped not by historical factors only but also by the intrinsic difficulties encountered in translating the Christian worldview as elaborated in Europe throughout centuries with words, concepts and linguistic structures proper to East Asia.

Christianity as shaped by European tradition encountered the civilizations of Japan, China and Korea from 1550 on. Till the beginning of the nineteenth century, East Asian nations witnessed the arrival of mostly Catholic missionaries, whose lingua franca was Latin, though Portuguese (due to the patronage consented by the Pope to the King of Portugal) and other European languages were also used as communication and translation tools. Protestant missionaries arrived in the region around the beginning of the nineteenth century. Their linguistic policies had much to do with efforts developed for translating the Bible into vernacular languages and will therefore be sketched in Part II.

Jesuit missionaries in particular dealt directly with a variety of linguistic problems. Matteo Ricci (in China from 1583 till his death in 1610) took pains to write his apologetic works in elegant literary Chinese. In 1615, the Jesuits received from the Pope the permission to use vernacular language in the liturgy and to translate the Bible in classical Chinese. However, the development of the Rites Controversy prevented them from making use of this permission. Attempts made in Japan during the same period were also aborted. More generally, if apologetic and catechetical treaties in East Asian languages were numerous, the authoritative sources of Catholicism were still controlled by the use of Latin till the middle of the twentieth century. In the Catholic world, it is only with the foundation of the Fu Jen Faculty of Theology, in Taipei, that teaching and research were conducted in Chinese, starting in 1968. From that time on, the shift has been swift and complete.

In Korea, Christian use of the Hangul script enabled the spreading of the faith. As early as the end of the eigtheenth century, portions of the Gospels, doctrinal books and a hymnary appeared in this script. This was a challenge to the perceived cultural superiority of Chinese and a factor in the rise of literacy. In Taiwan, the influence of the Presbyterian Church is strongly linked to its early advocacy of the Taiwanese (minnan) language and romanization.

Protestant missionaries in the Far East saw the encounter between Christianity and Eastern languages mainly through the prism of Bible translation. An exploratory stage took place from 1820 to 1890, a time where full translations in Japanese and Chinese of both Testaments were completed. In 1919, the publication of the Mandarin Union Version, coinciding with the May Fourth Movement, was a lasting cultural and literary event. In Japan, authoritative Catholic and Protestant versions of the New Testament were published around 1910-1917. After 1960, new publications appeared, based on renewed scholarship. The first complete Chinese Catholic Bible was published in 1967 in Taiwan. In Korea, the Bible was newly translated for common use by both the Catholic and Protestant churches--the New Testament in 1971 and the Old Testament in 1977. Questions as to the reliability of these two translations have been raised; a Catholic Bible was been completed only in 2002.

Over the last thirty years of the twentieth century, Korean minjung theology has provided East Asia with an example of the importance of language issues in the crafting of a new Christian way of being. Though minjung roughly means “people”, the word is usually not translated in order to preserve the specificity of the historical experience it represents. Korean minjung theology pioneered extra-textual hermeneutics, insisting on popular rituals and expressions of feeling as a source of inspiration. Of special importance has been the stress put on kut, a shaman-like rite that makes the community as a whole gathering, resurrecting and offering sacrifice. Similarly, much writing has been devoted to han, the dominant popular feeling arising from “the suppressed, amassed and condensed experience of oppression.”(Suh Nan-dong) Such journey allowed for instance the Korean feminist Chung Hyun Kyung to write: ”I discovered my bowels are shamanistic bowels, my heart is a Buddhist heart and my head is a Christian head.” Though not as vibrant as was the case in the 1980s, minjung theology still provides a set of questions for East Asian Christianity as a whole:

From the middle of the sixteenth century on, the encounter between Christianity and East Asian languages and cultures was partly shaped by European expansionism, partly by the interaction between cultural-linguistic matrices proper to worldviews that had developed apart from each other. Biblical translation was a battleground on which religious inculturation slowly occurred. The determination of theological terminology also allowed for creative linguistic and cultural accommodation. Today, biblical, literary and extra-textual hermeneutics contribute to the reshaping of East Asian Christianity. The appropriation of Christianity by East Asian languages and cultures is ultimately an ongoing narrative told in many tongues.

 

Photo : Taipei Ricci Institute Archives
Tuesday, 20 January 2009 03:57

New Zealand’s Multi-Million Industry: Overseas Student Recruitment

Though not as flamboyant as its counterpart Australia in advertising its foreign student recruitment, New Zealand may very well be one of the most popular and costliest choices of destination for education amongst Asian nationals.

Roughly the size of the UK, New Zealand is residence to over 350 000 Asians alone according to statistics taken in 2006. Not frequent yet ever so present, are the racial violence in New Zealand, which has otherwise done little to discourage wealthy parents from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Japan and Korea from sending their children half way across the world to learn English.

When Yi Ren, also known as Tina, a 30 year-old Chinese national from Beijing, was murdered in Auckland, New Zealand in September 2008- she became the fourth Chinese national to be murdered in the four weeks to 5 October 2008, where two Chinese men were also killed, and the body of another dead Korean was discovered.

New Zealand continues to be regarded as a generally friendly and racially tolerant nation. The plights of these foreign nationals, be it the repercussion of racism or other motives, can be mirrored in Australia but of a noticeably smaller percentage in the past years. Australia, on the other hand, has achieved a racist notoriety amongst Asian states for its overt ‘White Australian Policy’ and racial conflicts.

I was thus baffled as to why exactly foreigners, especially those from Asia, are bent on paying heavy sums of money in sending their children to study in New Zealand, where a year alone in high school and boarding costs approximately 30 000NZD (770 000NT), not including the expenses incurred by families visiting their children- which could amount up to a terrifying sum, unaffordable even for the wealthier middle-class family.

I am also speaking with personal experience that although not blatantly aggressive, racism is present to a large extent in high school to university life in New Zealand. From harmless name-calling, to vandalism of property to various degrees of physical abuse to murder, I have heard and seen all types of racial disputes during my stay in the country. The pricey cost of living and tuition in total for one year in New Zealand living there as a 17-year-old teenager has lead me to question: Is it really worth spending millions on secondary or tertiary education in a foreign country when one may face rejection in local social circles and face, from time to time, racial prejudice?

Were they, like myself, drawn by the praises of the country’s beauty through word of mouth, or recruited through the numerous profitable agents i.e. the foreign embassies, the so-called education attachés, other embassy staff, or their representatives? Recruiting international students is starting to look like or perhaps has always been a big business in New Zealand whereby the staff of foreign embassies and schools alike have an enormous stake; about 15 percent of all school fees paid by foreign students are claimed by these agents.
While these agents are more than willing to entice foreign nationals to study in New Zealand, promoting the multi-million ‘foreign relations’, the now increasingly negative behaviour of a significant number of locals beg to differ.

Christchurch became the first city to create a website for international students to address racial harassment in New Zealand. Christchurch is perhaps no more racist than your average city in a predominantly Caucasian country but the fact that it has taken action to address these issues show that New Zealand may still be able to abate the anti-Asian sentiments before it grows out of hand.

We often say ‘fear cripples our ability to learn’. Parents overseas too, may need to reconsider before investing million of dollars on education in an otherwise beautiful country. Much needs to be done on integrating the overseas students, and even more so on the young kiwi’s understanding of the Asian people.

Photo by A. L.

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