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Thursday, 05 August 2010 15:08

「陶」氣父子‧快意人生──陶大偉談陶喆

 

 

陶大偉,兒童節目主持人、歌手、演員、製作人。只要一提起他,大家總會想起二十多前的《小人物狂想曲》、《嘎嘎嗚啦啦》,還有數不清的兒童節目、喜劇和動畫。

不過這幾年,他的另一個身分更常被提起,那就是──陶喆的爸爸。

聽陶大偉說話,你得隨時扶好茶杯,因為不知道他下一秒又會蹦出什麼笑話。

在陶大偉的書裡,陶喆寫下了這段話:「我爸爸不只是一個說書大師,他也是一個趣味人、叛客、哲學家。」

現在,我們就來聽聽這個「小孩子」的「陶」氣哲學吧!

 

Wednesday, 04 August 2010 17:27

A glimpse into Matsu’s island

Have you ever heard of Matsu?

Most of the people I have met in Taiwan or abroad who never been to Matsu refer to it as a military island or think of the famous Chinese Goddess of the Sea: “Mazu” (馬祖). Unfortunately not many people know about this beautiful and quiet island (actually, Matsu is an archipelago of 19 small islands, divided into four townships*), which belongs to Lienchiang County (連江縣) of the Republic of China (ROC). Matsu is situated in the Taiwan Strait, only 10 miles (16 km) away from China, close to Fujian province, but 120 miles (193 km) away from Taiwan. I was astonished to see at Nangan harbor how very close China is to Matsu, just 40 minutes by boat.

My first trip to Matsu was during the Chinese New Year and I will never forget it. Indeed, as you might say, I did not choose the right time to go to this island. The weather was bad and all the residents of Matsu were going back home to Matsu to spend New Year with their families. My flight was delayed and I had to wait until the next day before to take another plane.... However, there were no normal passenger planes and I had to take a military transport airplane. Everyone was in the baggage hold, sitting all together in two long rows, not so comfortable but quite worth it simply for the experience. Fortunately, the plane trip was short, only 45 minutes, and I did not have to jump by parachute for the landing. This reinforced my strong impression that Matsu is well served by its nickname of Military Island! However, I discovered during my stay on this island that Matsu is much more than just a military island.

Matsu was the furthest military outpost of Taiwan’s Chinese Nationalists when the Communists established their power in the mainland in 1949. Since 1992, when martial law on the island was lifted, the number of soldiers stationed on Matsu has significantly decreased, as has as the fishing industry, which has had an adverse effect on Matsu’s economy. Consequently, with the support of the Taiwanese government, Matsu decided to develop a cultural economy. For example, many military facilities and historic monuments can now be visited, such as the secret military tunnels. They were built during the 1950s to hold ships that could launch surprise attacks on the mainland. It is quite amazing that the existence of these tunnels was unknown even by the residents of Matsu until 1992. Capitalizing on the fame of its Goddess namesake, the tallest statue of Mazu in the world is in Nangan Township.

lise_darbas_matsu2In addition, I was quite impressed by Matsu’s unique stone houses, built in the style of Eastern Min architecture. Indeed, the native people of Matsu were originally immigrants from Eastern Fujian or Eastern Min, so they do not speak Taiwanese but the Fuzhou dialect (福州話, or閩北話). One of the most well-known traditional sites, the village of Qinbi in Beigan (dating from the Ming and Qing Dynasties), bears a strong resemblance to Mediterranean architecture. Most of these houses are nowadays not inhabited during winter vacations. They have been restored and converted into art galleries, coffee shops and bed and breakfast guesthouses to cater for tourists. Walking between these houses made me felt like if I was in a small ghost town. There was strong wind coming from the sea, and I noticed the peculiarity of the roof tiles of the stone houses, which were all weighed down with rocks to defend against the wind. Winter vacation is not the ideal time to fully enjoy Matsu, rather the best time to go to this island is from June to November. During this period the weather is much more favorable for hiking and enjoying a coffee on the terrace of stone houses next to the seaside.

Matsu is now trying its best to lure tourist and attract more interests. Before going to Matsu, I heard of Josh Wenger, an American doctoral student at National Taiwan University who won a competition to be mayor of Matsu for a day. In October 2009, inspired by the famous publicity of “The best job in the world” on Hamilton Island (part of Australia's Great Barrier Reef), Matsu had the brilliant idea to create an online quiz of 10 questions on Matsu’s geographical and historical facts to promote itself. The winner had the amazing opportunity to become the mayor of Matsu for one day, with an award of NT$10,000, and a stay of 3 days and 2 nights in free accommodation.

lise_darbas_Josh_Matsu_5I interviewed Josh who was deeply impressed by Matsu, which he describes as an interesting island with a rich cultural heritage and beautiful natural sites, friendly people and exceptionally tasty food, which was some of the best he has ever tasted in Taiwan. The food he enjoyed the most was fresh seafood, such as seafood noodles, the Buddha hands (炒佛手), and fried clams (炒花蛤). I also found Matsu’s food very delicious, for example, I enjoyed eating Matsu’s “Red rice yeast chicken” (紅糟雞) in the small cozy coffee shop “Lady Coffee” (夫人咖啡) next to the coast in Nangan Township.

Josh’s favorite places were in Beigan island, such as “Biyuan Park” (碧園, which means “green garden”) a small beautiful park with plaques containing the names of soldiers who lost their lives serving in the military; the mountain “Bishan” (北竿大沃山) is the highest peak of the Matsu island with an incredible view of Beigan island, and the “88 tunnel” (八八坑道), which originally took its name to commemorate Chiang Kai-shek’s 88th birthday. Since 1992, this tunnel is no longer a military facility, but is instead used by the people of Matsu to keep their best old rice liquor (老酒) in ceramic pots.

Following on from my short stay in Matsu, and after having interviewed Josh, I became even more interested by this small island. Although Matsu is not as well known as the main island of Taiwan, it is undoubtedly one of the most interesting historical and natural sites I have visited here. I believe that Matsu is an indispensable destination for understanding cross-Strait relations. Moreover, Matsu’s cultural assets such as the stone houses are some of the most important attractions of the island, and have given Matsu a charm and special atmosphere that seems to be from another time. What was once a frontier of the Cold War is now ideal tourist spot for a relaxing couple of days.

(Photos courtesy of J. Wenger and L. Darbas)

Links:

“Matsu National Scenic Area,” http://www.matsu-nsa.gov.tw/User/Main.aspx?Lang=2.

“Matsu’s best-kept cultural heritage: Eastern Min architecture at Qinbi village,” http://www.culture.tw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1430&Itemid=157

Watch Josh Wenger’s report about his experience being the mayor of Matsu:「 一日縣長」溫賈舒:馬祖的美麗景點,絕對要去看

 

*Nangan (南竿鄉), Beigan (北竿鄉), Juguang (莒光鄉), Dongyin (東引鄉)

Thursday, 27 May 2010 03:05

以虛寫真漫畫人生:2010年法國安古蘭漫畫大獎與佳作介紹(一)

法國安古蘭國際漫畫節FIBD, Festival Internatonal de la Bande Dessinée)於今年一月底舉行,這項盛會已有三十多年歷史,堪稱歐漫界的坎城影展,獲獎作品不一定是最賣座的暢銷書,但漫畫節向來勇於頒獎肯定藝術上有所成就的作品,不過也因此遭人批評走向過於精英路線。今年漫畫節「大獎」頒給了老將巴會(Baru),「最佳作品獎」則由年輕漫畫家薩杜夫(Riad Sattouf)的《暴衝帕斯卡》獲獎,有些歐漫觀察家認為,這是漫畫節希望平衡外界批評而做出的選擇。


藍領之子 邊緣發聲:2010年大獎得主巴會

「我來自法國東部,我啊,是個法義雜種(batârd),我以此自豪。」男子一頭白髮被黑色T-shirt襯托得更顯眼,他對著鏡頭微笑著。

這就是巴會(Baru),法國安古蘭漫畫節2010年大獎得主(le Grand Prix)。

巴會原名艾維‧巴會雷亞(Hervé Baruléa),1947年出生在法國東北部洛林省。這個地區昔日以工礦業著稱,吸引了不少義大利、烏克蘭與北非等外籍勞工前來謀生。後來礦業沒落,工廠關閉,地方產業力圖轉型。巴會的父親就是來此落地生根的義大利外籍勞工,母親來自法西的不列塔尼半島。

巴會本來是體育老師,1982年在當時著名歐漫雜誌《領航者》(Pilote)開始發表作品。說起他從事漫畫創作的源由,他說是「為了公開告訴眾人世界的走向」。他說他當時受幽默漫畫家來瑟(Reiser)啟發,早逝的來瑟作品隨性瀟灑,刷刷幾筆直指人生百態。

藉著漫畫《庄腳少年藍調》Quéquette Blues) 與《我住法國小蘇聯》Années Spoutnik),巴會以自己出身的勞工階級入畫,訴說法國市井小民的故事,不是只有英雄將相或正妹型男才是書冊主角。巴會1995年在法日同步出版《陽光公路驚險記》(l’Autoroute du Soleil),這部作品在兩地均獲好評。


六○年代年少回憶

三十多年漫畫生涯過去,巴會出版了十來本作品,《庄腳少年藍調》獲得1985年安古蘭漫畫節最佳首部作品獎,《薩伊德的拳擊大夢》le Chemin d’Amérique)與《陽光公路驚險記》也先後於1991年與1996年獲得安古蘭肯定,頒贈重要獎項「最佳作品獎」(le Meilleur Album)。

《庄腳少年藍調》是巴會較早期的作品,他以第一人稱描寫1960年代的年少回憶。他詳實地描寫一點也不浪漫的法國工業小城,工廠高爐聳立。那是個年輕人穿西裝打領帶把妹的時代,鄉下樂手用手風琴與破英文演唱「滾石」樂團的歌,賣力地想要跟上時代潮流。剛成年的巴會跟著朋友鬼混,總被取笑還是個處男,但他並不想找個人隨便拋掉處子之身,即使老是被嘲諷。

本書畫風雖然不像現在的巴會成熟,作者誠懇地帶著我們走過1960年代的法國小城,少年郎急著「登大人」,不管用性愛、狂歡或幹架。六十年代的威權式教育讓他們感到苦悶,玩團或把妹是少有的宣洩出口,他們不想像父執輩一樣被工廠綁住一輩子。


lilou_FIBDA2010_02

沒落城市忠實入畫

《陽光公路驚險記》的背景同樣設定在作者熟悉的工業小城,描寫這些沒落城市的蒼涼,也觸及法國內部的移民與種族問題。

作者用了一個黑色幽默場景開場。話說某煉鋼廠試著拉倒某座老舊高爐,退休員工們在旁看好戲,順便向他們昔日的忠實「夥伴」致敬。當高爐被拉倒,老員工們的昔日榮耀彷彿也跟著灰飛煙滅,眾人垂頭喪氣地離去。

義裔少年阿雷克斯的父親也是這批老員工之一。阿雷喜歡找北非裔帥哥卡寅鬼混,某天卡寅鬧出桃色糾紛被迫跑路,阿雷只好跟他沿著「陽光公路」南下避風頭。這兩個移民後裔不但惹上了極右派份子,還成了毒販追殺的目標。這對倒楣鬼如何逃出生天,巴會以動感十足的手法讓讀者跟著他們一路奔逃藏躲。


敏感議題大膽觸及

《薩伊德的拳擊大夢》一書設定在1950至60年代阿爾及利亞獨立運動時期,這段歷史在阿法兩國間鑄下相當深刻的傷痕,至今仍是法國近代史上一個敏感議題。巴會選擇了一個看似與大時代無關的拳擊手薩伊德當主角,這個阿爾及利亞小子離開了恐怖活動頻傳的祖國,成了法國與歐洲冠軍。他甚至去了美國,在擂台上發光發熱。

然而,現實還是像條瘋狗一樣緊咬著他。身為名人的薩伊德難以置身事外,支持法國殖民政權的人鄙視他,阿國地下組織則威脅他付「革命稅」,否則就用命來抵。沒有人能輕鬆地脫身,薩伊德不想選邊站都不行,歷史的洪流轟轟地吞噬了許多無辜者的身家性命,只要你是法國人或阿國人,你就毫無選擇,被迫參與這場血腥的戰鬥。

《英雄不怕出身低》l’Enragé)的主角安東也是個家境不佳的少年拳擊手,一開場他就坐在法庭內。他究竟是被告,還是原告?跟著他回憶過往,我們看到了一個法國清寒少年想要功成名就的歷程。等安東真的名利雙收,身邊有著許多比拳擊還危險的誘惑等著讓他粉身碎骨。當安東靠拳賽賺到第一筆錢,他跪在地上向鈔票膜拜,直嚷:「快呀快呀,錢錢們趕快錢生錢啊。」他想藉此得到父親認同,可是老頭從現金到拳擊冠軍腰帶一概不收,安東一輩子似乎都在為了獲得父親的認可而搏鬥。

有的創作者藉著想像力逃離自己身邊熟悉的世界,創造出自己的異次元世界;也有些創作者從自己身邊的事物發想,從看似平凡的環境轉化出奇花異草來。巴會走的就是第二種路子。他來自法國工業小城,他出身移民勞工家庭,他描寫這個階層人們的喜樂與哀愁,他也因此為異國類似的故事感動,用漫畫一筆一畫為他們留下存在的痕跡。

法國知名漫畫家羅塞爾(Régis Loisel)曾說:「巴會是漫壇武士。」是的,他是個來自民間,用畫筆為民間發聲的尊貴武士。


巴會照片攝影 /Crochet.david

【註】時報文化曾於 1998年分上下兩冊出版Baru作品L’Autoroute du Soleil,作者名與書名分別譯為「巴魯」及《太陽高速》。


■ 巴會官方網站  http://baru.airsoftconsulting.info/Accueil.aspx

■ 巴會紀錄片「巴會世代」http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xb76fg_generation-baru-extraits-du-film_creation


■ 安古蘭漫畫節官方網站 http://www.bdangouleme.com




本文亦見於2010年6月號《人籟論辨月刊》

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Thursday, 27 May 2010 02:47

以虛寫真漫畫人生:2010年法國安古蘭漫畫大獎與佳作介紹(二)

布洛奇(Blutch)可說是法國漫畫新浪潮不可忽視的要角,他去年獲頒安古蘭漫畫節大獎,除了照慣例在今年舉行個展外,他也把自己小時候鍾愛的漫畫《藍袍小兵》les Tuniques Bleues)引薦給漫畫節觀眾,多少有向大眾漫畫致敬之意,這部漫畫的主角就叫做「布洛奇」。

布洛奇展比起上屆得主杜比與貝比昂(Dupuy & Berberian)展低調單純得多,沒有逗趣的大型藝術裝置,展場就只有布洛奇的圗畫創作,觀眾最後可在展場附設的放映室觀看以布洛奇為題的紀錄短片。


華麗與衰敗共生:2009年大獎得主布洛奇個展

走過布洛奇個展,光看觀眾反應就相當有趣。他為法國文學刊物繪製了一系列諷刺漫畫,不少觀眾看了竊笑。也有一組系列畫作以幽暗的粉彩色調為主,畫中青春肉體與衰老發胖的人體並存,有時奇怪的不明物體佔據畫面,有時作者嘗試捕捉人物的動態感,編織出生命與衰敗共存共生的世界。展場入口有幅粉彩畫作頗引人注意,畫面上只有兩個背影,左邊的西裝男子頭部是把草,右邊的藍衣女子有著一頭熾艷的紅髮,那是布洛奇為名導亞倫雷奈(Alain Renais)新片《愛情瘋草》(Les Herbes Folles)繪製的海報。

布洛奇個展不像傳統的漫畫展,他並沒有像大多數作者把漫畫出版品原稿一頁頁地拿出來展示就好。他拿出了許多從未出版的私房畫作,展現出創作者在成熟技巧與自發性揮灑的來回追索,它們就像一片片瑰麗奇異的拼圖,為我們拼湊出創作者內心宇宙的一方天空。

展場雖然看不到布洛奇的爆笑童年記事《小小克里斯提昂》(le Petit Christian),也沒有驚心動魄的《羅馬宮闈秘史》(Péplum),樂迷們也看不到《完全爵士》(Total Jazz)原稿,漫畫家誠摯邀請我們參觀他創作的後花園,又是一方天地。


攝影/David Rault


■ 漫畫家布洛奇介紹 http://mypaper3.pchome.com.tw/lilou/post/1262676460

■ 安古蘭國際漫畫節官方網站 http://www.bdangouleme.com




請見2010年6月號《人籟論辨月刊》

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Thursday, 27 May 2010 02:14

以虛寫真漫畫人生:2010年法國安古蘭漫畫大獎與佳作介紹(三)

法國青年漫畫家利雅德‧薩杜夫(Riad Sattouf)以《暴衝帕斯卡》(Pascal Brutal)第三集獲得今年安古蘭「最佳作品獎」,之後又馬上以影片《國中囧男生》(les Beaux Gosses)獲得法國影壇大獎,可說是雙喜臨門。

Thursday, 15 April 2010 17:48

Dreams: Their forgotten remembering function

As I walked my dog near the faculty housing complex at Taiwan’s National Chi Nan University, two other dogs came running up. Their owner wasn’t far behind – the woman who’d just moved into the house behind ours. Her English was excellent and she seemed interesting. I invited her to the Tuesday night dream group I lead at the campus English Corner. She said she was busy but promised to come the following week. I rang her doorbell later and gave her an article that explained the Montague Ullman experiential dream group method we use.

Next week she showed up in the group late. Those of us sitting around the circle had just finishing introducing ourselves. I asked if she’d care to say something to the others before we begin.

“I’m not staying,” she announced. “I only came by because I promised. What you do in this group goes against what I teach my students about dreams.”

“What is it you teach?” I asked.

“The research shows that dreams have no meaning and should be forgotten.”

“I would like to invite you,” I put it to her, “To put aside what you’ve read about dreams just long enough to experience for yourself what actually happens here in the next hour and a half between a dreamer and her dream.”

She rose to her feet. “No,” she said. She walked out of the room.

I removed her empty chair and had everyone close the gap in the circle. Besides myself, eight individuals remained: undergraduates from the Departments of Social Policy and Social Work, Applied Chemistry, and Chinese Literature; a graduate student from the Department of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language; a faculty member from the Department of Information Management; a 12 year-old girl from the local elementary school; and two women from outside the university, whom we’d never seen before. They drove over from a nearby mountain town to practice their English. Neither had any idea what a dream group was. When I called for a dream the elder of the two raised her hand. Her name was Yi-San. She taught Chinese at the junior high school in town.

“You have a dream?”

“Yes,” she said in a soft voice. “But I’m afraid my English is not good enough.”

“Don’t worry. Not good enough will work fine in this group,” I said. “When did you have this dream?”

She thought a moment. “Oh… When I was about ten or eleven.”

The professor who had just walked out told us dreams should be forgotten. I wondered how she and her scientists would explain those that are unforgettable and stay with us for a lifetime.

“Tell us your dream.”

“For a week I had the same dream every single night…” she began.

“Don’t tell us anything right now except the dream itself,” I cautioned. “Say it slow so we can write down every word.”

Yi-San told her childhood dream:

I was in a place and that place was my house, around my house area. And there was some Indians ran after me. They run after people who live there. I was in that area because that was my home town. I ran and ran and ran. Every time when Indian almost get me I fall down and pretend I was die and then I escape to be catched. I was nervous and scared in that situation. And then when that Indian cross me, he thought I was dead, and he cross me to find someone else to catch one, I run again. Very soon, another Indian run after me again. Over and over I pretend fall down and die to escape to be catch up till I awake.

Yi-San told us the place was real – the area around the house where she lived at that time. She called her attackers in the dream Indians because they looked every bit like American Indians, with painted faces and feathered headdresses – but in the dream she knew them to be the aboriginal people of Taiwan. She’d never seen one of these aboriginal tribesmen and so in the dream pictured them as Native Americans. Her feeling in the dream was, “I thought I would be killed.”

Members of the group took the dream as their own and brainstormed about its feelings and metaphors. Then I invited Yi-San to come forward and tell us what she could make of her dream.

Yi-San said:

“I remember that the house [we lived in when I had that dream] was dark– so I ran in and ran out without light.”

“My family, we just moved in a few months before. I didn’t like that house because it’s far away from town. There are fields around the house and we didn’t have lots of neighbors. The neighbors were not nearby.”

“I couldn’t forget that dream until I grow up. One day I decided to go to Peru to find an answer. In Peru there are Indians. So I went for two years. I didn’t find any answer.”

“I went back to Taiwan. I got married with an aborigine.”

“That dream is always in my mind. How to make it clear, or find the answer. I dreamt the same dream every day in that week. I dreamt it the first night. Then the second night dreamt it again. Then I went to bed the third night and dreamt it again.”

We set the dream aside and questioned Yi-San about the little girl who dreamed it.

Yi-San said:

“That house was our second house.”

“We had a house from the time when I was born until I was 4 or 5 years old; but it belonged to my father’s family. When my father’s brothers split the property amongst themselves we lost the house. We moved to another place. We moved about 1 or 2 times after that to houses that weren’t ours.”

“Then my father had money to build a house and we moved when I was 10.”

“We all didn’t like that house – including my brothers, sisters, and me. (I’m the eldest) – except my father; because he chose that place and built the house. The land was cheap because it was far away from town.”

“At that time it was a hard time. Before we moved in that house my father was seldom at home. He worked in Japan. My mother worked hard. We often feel not safety.”

“I didn’t feel safety when I was child. My father always work far away.”

“I was eldest. Have to take care of brothers and sisters, support mother. I felt got lot of abilities on my shoulders to carry.”

“I thought that house had ghosts.”

“At night we didn’t dare to go to the bathroom alone. The others company, be a line waited outside the bathroom door for our turn.”

“My mother was not very healthy.”

“I was very shy but active inside. Appearance looks shy, thin.”

I asked Yi-San if she would care to say more about “active inside.”

“I had a lot of dream about future but nobody knew at that time. “

“I always wanted to fly away from home. Always look to the sky.”

“When I was a child my relatives tell me I liked to jump, to run, to speak a lot, always say hello to everyone.”

“When I get older I change. About 7 or 8.”

“I wanted to travel around the world, and do something great, be the great person. Know different kind of countries, people.”


Yi-San became choked up with feeling and fell silent.

The group waited.

The professor who had walked out told us dreams had no meaning. I wondered how she and her scientists would account for the tears Yi-San fought back. To reconnect with one’s deepest feelings is not meaningful? As a little boy I too had wanted to “be the great person.” Yi-San’s words brought an uprush of emotion in me too. How many of us can measure up to the big hopes and dreams of the innocent child we once were?

“I felt sad,” Yi-San apologized when she’d recovered herself and could speak. “I wanted to cry.”

I asked her if she’d like to go to the next stage of the Ullman process. She said yes.

I explained how the playback stage worked. One of the group members read the first piece of Yi-San’s dream back to her.

Yi-San didn’t know what we wanted her to do.

I explained again how the playback worked. The group member read the next segment of Yi-San’s dream back to her.

Usually in the playback the dreamer is able to connect each of the dream’s metaphors with her waking-life situation before the dream; and come to a much deeper, and often very different, understanding of herself and her life because of the dream’s unabashed truthfulness and its inclusion of much important information that escaped waking notice. But this is all Yi-San could say:

In the dream I was worried about how I could rescue those people. I can do nothing, just running.

* * *

I felt fear, nervous.

* * *

When I face to difficulty what I do is escape. I used to be when a child, if I didn’t do school homework well, I pretend I having headache or stomachache. But not now.

* * *

I think I heard from my grandmother, she taught us in ancient time have in Taiwan those aborigines that cut person’s heads off [some aboriginal tribes in Taiwan were headhunters]. Once my grandmother when a little girl she went to the forest and lot of aborigines run out. She with friends run and run and she drop into a hole and pretend she is dead. That aborigine cross her and she didn’t be killed but someone be killed at that time and cut head away.”

* * *

What I curious about: why did I dream that dream for several days?”

When Yi-San was finished I asked her if she’d like to hear what others in the group thought about her dream. She said yes.

The view of the group was that Yi-San was much closer to the various levels of the dream than she realized. On its simplest, most immediate, level, the dream expressed the fears she and her brothers and sisters felt living in this dark and (she feared) “haunted” new house their father built way out all alone in the fields, far from town and from any neighbors. The children dared not go to the bathroom alone at night. They feared for their lives. Yi-San, the eldest, was a responsible girl. During the day she helped out her mother with the younger ones. But asleep at night she was very much the little child again, and prey to her siblings’ same fears about being moved to a place so far away from town when the mother was not well and the father was frequently absent. That the fears take the form of Taiwan’s aboriginal headhunters is undoubtedly due to the grandmother’s tale of her own childhood encounter with aborigines one day when she and her playmates ventured too far from town.

Some members of the group also discerned a deeper level to this dream, as evidenced by (1) Yi-San’s lifelong concern with finding “the answer” to it – and her venture to South America, a place with Indians, in search of that answer; and (2) her marriage to a Taiwanese aborigine when she returned to Taiwan.

Yi-San said she never found an “answer” to the dream; but she herself, of course, was all along the dream’s “answer.” On its deepest level, the dream announces to her who she is. She had the dream at an age when her unique form of greatness was just beginning to wake up in her and assert itself. The terrifying images in the dream were a self-portrait – and a clue to the distinctive spiritual destiny that was to be hers.

claire_shen_15_dreamsThe dream occurred again and again, night after night, for a whole week because the dream’s scenario was supercharged, drawing its emotional impact from the two different levels on which the dream operated. The terror and the fear for her life, understandable from the lower and most obvious level of the dream, are even more pronounced on its higher, more subtle, level. We are all most afraid of what we don’t know. What always remains most unknown and unknowable to us is what we most deeply are. It’s our real greatness that terrifies us the most, because that’s the part of ourselves we least understand.

When a special and deeper, almost shamanic, nature first begins to emerge in the exceptional child, it asserts itself in ways that aren’t so easily comprehensible. Especially if coupled with outside fears or insecurities, it can strike terror into the child’s heart. When I was five, living in the bland Miami suburbs, I unaccountably had a nightmare that I hid under my bed in terror because there was a big wild bear at the window that wanted to get me. Among the Native Americans, a child might have an overpowering dream of an eagle, a wolf, or a bear – and thereby begin to be acquainted with the emergence of some deep inner aspect to its own individual nature. Yi-San’s inner nature was somehow akin to that of the aboriginal Taiwanese – an almost vanished people, very different from the Chinese. That this is the case is attested by her eventual marriage to an aboriginal man. My dream was of the great bear. Because the bear hibernates in the winter the bear spirit in some Native American cultures is said to be associated with sleeping, intuition, and dreams. Sleeping is indeed very important to my creative process, as is dreaming. I can only write early in the morning when I first awake and my mind is still not that far removed from its dreaming, or creative, mode. My way of working with dreams in the Ullman group is largely intuitive; and I have found that the unique value and importance of the Ullman dream group in the university curriculum is that it trains and sharpens the intuitive and creative powers of students subjected to a life-long education that is too narrowly intellectual. I have remembered that bear dream my whole life. It announces to me something I very much need to remember for it tells me my true nature and mission, which is different from the natures and missions of so many of those around me. I need to be me, not them. It’s the same with Yi-San and her wonderful aboriginal nature. The “answer” to her dream is to be who she most truly is and do what she does best, and what perhaps only she can do.

We always give the dreamer the last word.

Yi-San said:

“I’m glad I decided to come here.”

* * *

“What you give me really is the answer of my dream.”

* * *

“Some of you touch to my heart.”

* * *

“I never try to see myself so widely and deeply, and try to understand myself.”

* * *

“Thank you very much. It is a very good experience.”

So, what is the “meaning,” then, of Yi-San’s dream. What exactly does it “mean”? And, what specifically is it about this dream that, contrary to the dogma of some sleep researchers, should not be forgotten, but sorely needs to be remembered – not just by Yi-San, but also by us, who worked on it in the group, and perhaps even by certain individuals reading this?

The laboratory scientist claims dreams have no meaning and should be forgotten. But dreams don’t operate in the realm of science. They aren’t about science. They are all about art – naked specimens of the most basic artistic, intuitive, creative, and spiritual function at the root of human consciousness and culture. We don’t reduce a great painting, a masterpiece of fiction, or a profound religious enlightenment to mere intellectual or statistical understanding by asking “What does it mean?” and we don’t specifically dictate that it should or shouldn’t be forgotten. The fact is, it changes our lives and the lives of those around us and is unforgettable.

The meaning is not in the artwork itself but in our human lives. The power of the work of art is that it can touch us down to levels of meaning, being, human richness, and even divine compassion that we have forgotten, and perhaps left behind – and it can bring these forward again into our experience. This is also the power of dreams and we have never worked with the images of a dream in an Ullman group but what we have found that they do have meaning and they do connect with the dreamer’s life.

A ten or eleven year old girl in Taiwan dreams a dream that she never forgets. Some thirty or forty years later she is a junior high school teacher in a mountain town in Taiwan. She tells the dream in a dream group and finds herself close to tears to recall that as a little girl she wanted to “be the great person.”[inset side="right" title="William Stimson"]conducts free all-day dream groups every month in Taipei and Taichung. For further information: billstimson[at]mac.com[/inset]

One of the greatest persons I ever met was Mrs. Hankens, my Honors English teacher at Southwest Miami Senior High School. She touched something into my life that I never began even to suspect until decades later. Undoubtedly she did the same for quite a number of her students. As Yi-San sat there in the group with us working on her dream, I was again and again affected by her simple humility, openness, and honesty. I thought of Mrs. Hankens and knew immediately Yi-San was a teacher like that. She may not have risen up high in the world, but there was no doubt in my mind that seated before us in the dream group, working on her childhood dream, was “the great person.”

And this maybe is the meaning of the dream, and of dreaming in general. That it makes us remember what we most essentially are, and enables us to see that in each other.

(Illustrations by Claire Shen)

Friday, 22 January 2010 04:38

影評:不可信任的國家權力

韓國電影是怎麼回事?」每當我看到一部令我驚豔的韓國電影時,我心裡面就會冒出這句話來。從1999年看到票房打敗《鐵達尼號》(Titanic)、被視為韓國電影復興起點的代表作《魚》(Shiri)開始,至今十年,這句話老是每隔一、兩年,就會出現一次。

而這幾年,這句話出現得比較頻繁。像是看了《殺人回憶》(Memories of Murder)、《原罪犯》(Oldboy)、《駭人怪物》(The Host)、《追擊者》(The Chaser)、《非常母親》,都會如此。也許是個人口味因素,以上幾部電影除了《非常母親》,都具有強烈的陽剛性質。縱觀全球電影,這強烈的陽剛性質,可能也是韓國影片的特色之一。


評價票房手到擒來

上述這幾部片裡面,從導演來看,出現次數最多的就是奉俊昊,幾乎每部作品都沒失手過。奉俊昊執導的影片目前共有四部,從第二部作品《殺人回憶》開始,透過DVD或院線,台灣觀眾都可以欣賞到。

自2003年的《殺人回憶》以來,奉俊昊的作品不但擁有非常好的口碑和評論,在商業上亦獲得極大成果:《殺人回憶》在韓國有500萬人次觀影;《駭人怪物》有1300萬觀影人次,是目前韓國影史票房冠軍紀錄保持者;《非常母親》則有300萬人次觀影,其上映首週,票房便打敗《魔鬼終結者:未來救贖》(Terminator Salvation)與《天使與魔鬼》(Angels & Demons)等好萊塢同期大片。評價和票房雙贏,更令人不得不問:「奉俊昊是怎麼回事?」若一一從作品來看,會對這位導演更有興趣。

警察罪犯一線之隔

《殺人回憶》的故事來源,是1986年到1991年,韓國京畿道華城郡附近村莊發生的連續殺人案件。這個案件當年轟動韓國,但至今一直未破案。電影的主要情節是,為了加速此懸案的破案進度,中央派了一位城裡的警官到鄉下警局來辦案。

城市來的警官和當地的警察格格不入:城市警察覺得鄉下警察辦案一點都不科學也不人道,不但毫無以科學方式收集證據的能力,而且習慣抓人頂替、屈打成招,跟犯罪者沒有兩樣;鄉下的警察則覺得城市警察裝模作樣,自以為是正義化身,卻一點也不懂得當地狀況。而且鄉下警察覺得上級不信任他們,才派人來盯,這更加引起雙方情緒對立。

在不斷找線索、抓嫌犯、審問的過程中,身為旁觀者的觀眾會慢慢發現,因為破案的壓力,使得原本對立的兩位警察,性格分際開始慢慢模糊,到後來甚至兩人性格對調,而兩造的行為分際,也不再那麼絕對。更嚇人的是,警察和被視為嫌犯的人,行為幾乎模糊得失去界線,能區別他們的,彷彿只有身上的警用配槍而已。


正義不再顛撲不破

警察是社會上最常與嫌疑犯打交道的人,日積月累長久浸潤其間,連認知也會模糊,以致兩者看起來,人格狀態會趨近相同。他們之間唯一的區別,是警察必須按著法規行事,而法規就成了正義的模樣,正義不再是穩定且可以確認不疑的判斷價值。而握有權力的警察,比起嫌疑犯更容易跨越這條界線,容易遊走雙方。

《殺人回憶》可以說是韓國版本的「警察故事」。它不是慣拍警匪片的香港發展出來的正義警察敘事,而是從二十世紀中這個國家建立後,便不斷有社會大規模抗爭和街頭異議行動的自覺且強悍民風,以及對於國家權力具有高度警覺背景下所發展出來的,對警察權力加以質疑的韓國式敘事。這種對於國家權力、警察權力的質疑,也是奉俊昊在之後作品中一貫保有的特色。


藉由翻案鄙棄體制

Angelo_Mother02到了2009年的《非常母親》,故事主軸放在一位母親對於弱智的兒子所涉案件的翻案上。奉俊昊在本片形同把國家、警察體制完全踩在腳底鄙棄。

片中守寡的母親與弱智的兒子泰宇同住。泰宇已經二十多歲,行為能力猶如未解事的小孩,但卻擁有自尊心,不想被認為愚笨,硬是要表現出自己是個能負責任的大人。而母親平常經營草藥店,並當密醫替人拔罐、針灸營生。泰宇一天到晚往外跑,母親隨時擔心他的安危,但泰宇偏偏對此感到厭煩,常常偷跑掉,跟朋友廝混。

有一天,泰宇家附近發生了一起女學生命案。女學生遇害後,屍體被倒掛在廢棄屋子房頂,往來的人們都看得到,因此馬上變成眾所矚目的案件。案發不久,警方收到線報,指出案發當晚泰宇曾在通往廢棄屋的小路上尾隨女學生,於是泰宇立刻被警方逮捕。

在警方的偵訊下,泰宇莫名其妙地便簽下事先寫好的口供。後來母親對此有所質疑,但泰宇為了否認自己的笨,堅持口供是自願簽下的。


優秀演員深度表現

在這種情況下,想當然耳,母親認為這是警方「抓人充數結案」的一貫伎倆,於是決定自力救濟,花大錢找了知名律師,來幫寶貝兒子打官司。但律師判斷形勢,決定勸泰宇認罪,以換取較少的刑期。不過母親和泰宇都不認同這種作法。

於是母親一邊讓泰宇用他不靈光的腦袋,努力去回想當天晚上的蛛絲馬跡,同時開始獨立辦案,努力去找解救無辜兒子的線索。後來泰宇想起了一個重要線索。母親循著這條線索,有了扭轉一切的發現……

《非常母親》比奉俊昊之前的作品更依賴演員,幾乎是為韓國資深女演員金慧子量身打造的作品,成敗端看演員的表現深度。而金慧子也完全撐起這樣一位飽經風霜,同時努力為兒子奔走的母親角色。

這部電影引起話題的,是飾演弱智兒子泰宇的偶像明星元斌――這是他退伍後三年的第一部作品。一反過去花美男的形象,元斌完全投入這樣一個看似純真但又複雜的弱智青年世界。在這些優秀演員的支持下,《非常母親》的情節才能夠合理地進行,因為片中有太多劇情推進的因素,都根源於這對母子的感情和特色上。


----------------------------------------
導演:奉俊昊(BONG Joon-Ho)
片名:《非常母親》(Mother
出品年份:2009年
台灣上映時間:2010年1月(CatchPlay發行)
----------------------------------------


劇照提供/CatchPlay

本文為節錄,完整內容請見2010年2月號《人籟》論辨月刊

No68

奉俊昊的作品為何每每令人驚艷?若想一探究竟,請購買本期雜誌!

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Friday, 22 January 2010 04:36

影評:野性的停泊

在眾多好萊塢明星中,尼可拉斯‧凱吉(Nicolas Cage)對我而言,是個又愛又恨的異數。

自《鳥人》(Birdy)、《扶養亞利桑那》(Raising Arizona)、《發暈》(Moonstruck)乃至《我心狂野》(Wild at Heart)以來,他的演技為多數影評及觀眾所肯定。但他從影三十多年來所主演的片子,十部裡卻總有七、八部是商業芭樂片。

於是這便形成一種矛盾情結:一方面你會想要看他主演的電影,但同時你碰到地雷的機會卻也高得出奇。近年來尤其變本加厲:從《惡靈線索》(The Wicker Man)、《惡靈戰警》(Ghost Rider)、《無聲火》(Bangkok Dangerous)到《末日預言》(Knowing),加上兩集《國家寶藏》(National Treasure),無不令人失望,倒彈連連。

不過今年這部《爆裂警官》終於讓人眼睛一亮。因為這次與他合作的導演,是德國新電影的重要代表人物韋納‧荷索。

這麼說並不是單純指稱荷索代表了某種品質保證。更有甚者,以荷索在影史上所受到的推崇與質疑,這樣的組合其實具有相當的複雜性。

所以恐怕得先從尼可拉斯‧凱吉過往的銀幕形象,來切入他在《爆裂警官》裡的表現,釐清荷索挑選他來演出的原由,才可能更深刻地理解或感受荷索在這部電影裡所深埋的綿裡針。


狂野正直之人

尼可拉斯‧凱吉自從1990年在《我心狂野》飾演一個動不動就與人鬥毆的火爆青年之後,對於「頹廢」、「陷溺」、「墮落」或「使壞」等等這類演出的拿捏方式,就一直有他自己的一套──他可以盡情地狂野到某個地步,卻仍然讓觀眾認同他有一顆善良正直的心。這也是為什麼他能夠叱吒好萊塢三十多年,因為若是一開始就被定型為反派,之後就很難成為主角了。

1994年尼可拉斯‧凱吉演出《遠離賭城》(Leaving Las Vegas)的酒鬼落魄劇作家角色,讓他拿到包括奧斯卡最佳男主角獎在內的大小獎項,一時水漲船高,也因此接演了一堆大預算卻沒什麼營養的商業動作片。

1997年吳宇森導演的《變臉》(Face Off)亦是這類代表作之一。但是這片卻還有個特別之處:兩個主要角色都必須在正邪之間遊走(其雙重臥底的編劇創意還在《無間道》之前)。只不過另一個男主角約翰‧屈伏塔(John Travolta)性格比較溫吞內斂,與尼可拉斯‧凱吉的狂放不羈正巧成為對比。且這兩人到最後已經變成你中有我、我中有你,正邪善惡界線模糊,兩人根本是同一人。


再創生涯高峰

1998年布萊恩狄帕瑪(Brian De Palma)導演的《蛇眼》(Snake Eyes),則可信之為尼可拉斯‧凱吉提供了《爆裂警官》裡的角色原型:一個看似玩世不恭、手底下不乾不淨、既沾黑又帶灰的警官,卻硬是在緊要關頭做出正義的選擇。《爆裂警官》乍看亦在玩這種形象反差的遊戲,但其實片中的這個角色更複雜得多,對演員的挑戰性也更高。

尼可拉斯‧凱吉累積了之前的演出經驗,縱然大多數其他影片不值一哂,仍能獲得荷索信任,擔綱演出這個角色。而就結果來看,他這次的演出也是相當成功的,甚至可說是再創生涯高峰。


荷索作者印記

686_TheBadLieutenant02然而從尼可拉斯‧凱吉的銀幕形象來論述《爆裂警官》,怎麼看都還是好萊塢的標準。若將影史上關於荷索電影的定位與角度也放入這個框框裡來看,不免有點尺榫不合。畢竟荷索過去的電影別說與好萊塢商業或娛樂電影八竿子打不著,就連電影的主題內容也都極少呈現美國,甚至高樓大廈、塞滿汽車的公路等等這些現代都會文明景觀。

唯一的例外,也是荷索電影中最平易近人的一部,乃是1977年的《史楚錫流浪記》(Stroszek)。此片呈現三個德國移民的美國夢如何在現實中被扭曲,終至破滅,其間的諷刺與批判不在話下。

但荷索更將威斯康辛州所代表的美國社會,經營成為某種「奇觀」。以十九世紀人類學者的視角,呈現拍賣會主持人的連珠炮言語方式、美國警察的機械化反應,加上嘉年華會場的跳舞雞,以及空無一人卻不斷轉動的滑雪纜車,這些畫面肯定讓美國人看了心裡不舒服。然而這正是荷索特有的「靈視」――他的每一部電影都有這種「靈視」鏡頭,幾乎已經成為他的作者印記之一。


人物特殊人格

荷索的另外一個作者印記,則是他電影裡的主人翁。

沒有第二位電影導演像荷索這樣,如此執著於探索人類意志與心靈的力量。也因此他電影裡的人物,多是在身體上異於常人者:《生命的訊息》(Signs of Life)裡精神異常的傷兵、《侏儒也是從小長大的》(Even Dwarfs Starts Small)裡的侏儒們、《沉默與黑暗的世界》(Land of Silence and Darkness)裡的盲人與聾人、《天譴》(Aquirre, The Wrath of God)裡偏執而瘋狂的叛變者阿奎爾、《賈斯柏荷西之謎》(The Enigma of Kasper Hauser)裡從未接受人類文明洗禮過的棄兒、《浮石記》(Woyzeck)的弱智士兵、《費茲卡拉多》(Fitzcarraldo)裡浪漫而瘋狂的夢想者、《納粹製造》(Invincible)裡的猶太大力士等等……。

劇情片如此,荷索紀錄片的主角也不遑多讓:《白鑽石》(The White Diamond)裡堅持在瀑布上空飛熱汽球的飛行家,以及《灰熊人》(The Grizzly Man)裡愛灰熊愛到被吃掉的加拿大青年,都成為荷索電影中所有那些特殊人格的特殊印證。


隱匿良善正直

相較之下,《爆裂警官》裡尼可拉斯‧凱吉飾演的警官開始還算正常。但開場的安排,便已揭示了他的特殊人格:在卡崔娜颶風侵襲時的紐奧良,他和另一警官(方基墨〔Val Kilmer〕飾演)發現監獄裡還有一名囚犯未被移監,而大水已行將滅頂。囚犯苦苦哀求相救,但他卻冷言冷語,說不想弄濕他身上所穿價值上百美金的內褲。

從他的言語內容看來,的確是個冷血無人性的惡警。但他一陣冷潮熱諷之後,終於還是跳下水去救人。這行為看似與他的惡言相牴觸,卻預示了他在惡劣乖張的外表下,所隱匿的一顆良善正義之心。

行此善行的回報是他被擢升為副警長。代價則是他弄傷了背,可能得終生服用止痛藥,結果他卻因此染上毒癮。這個警官似乎自此開始,更是壞事做盡:唆使同事短報原應作為證物的毒品,以供自己吸食,同事畏事拒絕再提供後,他就到夜店前勒索帶毒的男女,和他的妓女女友(伊娃‧曼德斯〔Eva Mendes〕飾演)一起吸毒,又在組頭處下注賭錢……。在黃賭毒三件事情上,他作為一個警官,真的是惡劣大膽到一個境界。


----------------------------------------
導演:韋納‧荷索(Werner Herzog)
片名:《爆裂警官》(Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call - New Orleans

出品年份:2009年
台灣上映時間:2010年1月(CatchPlay發行)
----------------------------------------


劇照提供/CatchPlay


本文為節錄,完整內容請見2010年2月號《人籟》論辨月刊

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Tuesday, 19 January 2010 02:10

北國新課題:芬蘭外來移民的困境與希望

芬蘭,是全歐洲族群最單一、外來移民最少的國度。然而,芬蘭也是全歐洲人口老化最快的國度。於是,這個還不真正習慣「多元文化」並存的國度,已經在她能夠兼容多元文化之前,先面臨了如何適度引進外來勞工,與如何調適外來移民進入芬蘭社會的問題。

芬蘭政府有一套幫助外來移民融入芬蘭社會的措施:擁有永久居留權的移民,政府會在其取得居留權最初三年裡,提供他們進入芬蘭就業市場所需要的技能學習課程。在這套措施的協助下,由其他國家來到芬蘭的移民不僅可免費上課,政府亦會定期提供他們財務上的補助。

至於政府提供外來移民的課程內容,則因人因地而異。大致上包括密集的芬蘭語課程與實習、芬蘭社會與歷史文化介紹等。想學一技之長的移民,也可在芬蘭語課程結束後,繼續申請就讀職業學校。


理想現實有所落差

這樣的一套規畫,在外來移民移居至芬蘭初期,的確提供了實質幫助。然而再深入探討,就會發現芬蘭政府為外來移民設想的規畫,仍然與外來移民實際融入芬蘭社會的理想,有相當大的落差。最明顯的落差就是:制度本身無法顧及外來移民間的差異,而且擁有高學歷及工作能力的外來移民,在這個制度之下常常被「忽略」。

例如所有由芬蘭政府提供的芬蘭語課程,大多只指導外來移民到「擁有基本日常會話能力」的程度。若是移民在課程結束後,想從事具有專業性質的白領工作,他們透過這些課程所習得的初階程度芬蘭語,完全不夠用。

此外,所有由芬蘭政府提供補助的職業學程,多是芬蘭最「初階」的職校學歷證照。大部分已由外國大學畢業,也已經學有所長的移民,其實無法真正受益於這樣的課程與系統。因此,受過高等教育的外來移民在芬蘭,由於無法從事自己擅長的工作,而不得不做洗碗工、清潔工的案例,時有所聞。


刻板印象先入為主

也許因為芬蘭的移民歷史與歐洲其他國家相較,顯得相對短暫,而芬蘭媒體與民眾長年以來,也常不自覺將移民與難民畫上等號,因此許多芬蘭人心目中對移民的印象,不外乎是「低學歷、能力不足」。

於是當有外來移民在芬蘭政府提供的電腦課上,展現出自己對文書處理軟體充分的掌握能力時,部分芬蘭老師甚至會因此略為訝異。這是因為在很多芬蘭人先入為主的認知中,大部分的移民似乎「教育程度都不高、電腦使用能力也不佳」。

而芬蘭媒體與民眾看待外來移民的觀念,也完全忽略除了他們印象中「低學歷、能力不足」的移民,還有一大部分的移民在來到這個國家之前,都受過高等教育:芬蘭媒體與民眾完全忽略這些人也許是由於婚姻,才會來到芬蘭,在此定居。這些由於婚姻來到芬蘭的移民,過去也許在自己的國家,曾有相當好的工作,只是在芬蘭因為語言限制與缺乏適當協助,難以用一己之長謀生。


弔詭心態自相矛盾

TuCuiShan_FinlandImmigrants_02芬蘭的外來移民相較於其他歐洲國家來說,數量還算少。因此到目前為止,很少聽說大規模的種族衝突事件。然而這並不表示在芬蘭境內,潛在的種族歧視不存在。

最近的研究報導就發現,芬蘭首都赫爾辛基,也逐漸像其他歐洲國家大城市一樣,當地土生土長的芬蘭中產家庭,不但開始搬離城裡移民群居的區域,這些家庭的家長,也不願意讓自己的孩子就讀移民學生眾多的學校,原因是「擔心在外來移民多的地方,孩子無法學好芬蘭母語」。不過學者們認為,這些家長的說詞,其實是某種「藉口」。因為如果搬來當自家鄰居的是美國家庭,這些芬蘭家長的態度就變得完全不同。

許多人對國際事務有興趣,卻排斥接觸外來移民相關事務。許多家長對「國際學校」有興趣,卻對「外來移民學生數量多的學校」避之唯恐不及。出國旅遊,國外的一切都新鮮美好,進了國門,卻覺得外來者都比本國人低一等,這是人們對於「異文化」常有的弔詭態度。

所以儘管「國際化」在芬蘭是熱門議題,芬蘭人心中對「移民」的印象,卻常過於片面。這也使許多芬蘭人不懂得將外來移民,視作「國際化」的資源之一。


移民身分認同難題

另一種對於外來移民不夠公平的對待,則是將移民僅視為特定文化的「代表」。一位住在芬蘭十餘年的研究員,就曾形容自己的母國文化在芬蘭,既為她帶來工作機會,也限制了她的發展:這位女士來自土耳其,這雖使她在芬蘭得到很多教授土耳其文、土耳其音樂、土耳其舞蹈的工作機會,可是,哪怕是她的博士論文,教授也建議她寫與土耳其相關的主題。

另一位年輕時就移民芬蘭的著名文化工作者,也曾在媒體訪問中表示:「移民還不會說芬蘭語時,有時候反而適應得比較好。」其實很多來到芬蘭的外國移民,也都有這共同的經驗:還不會說芬蘭語時,會被當作「國際訪客」,會說芬蘭語後,就「降級」成為移民。

正如這位著名文化工作者的芬蘭語說得完美無缺,但她大學畢業後的第一份記者工作,仍是被分配去做一個與多元文化相關的電視節目,好像移民在芬蘭社會的主要角色,就是「多元文化」與「母國文化」的代言人。如此久而久之,也會造成一些外來移民在認同上的難題。


攝影/凃翠珊

本文為節錄,完整內容請見2010年2月號《人籟》論辨月刊

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Sunday, 17 January 2010 04:29

被遺忘的1979:與毒搏鬥的油症患者

2008年秋日的一個傍晚,金黃色的陽光自天邊灌瀉而下,溫暖中帶著些許涼意。置身在這片色澤之中的鹿港文武廟前,突然出現一群外地人,乒乒乓乓地忙著在廟前廣場架布幕,擺音響,排座位,準備播放一部名為《油症――與毒共存》的紀錄片――這是台灣第一部追蹤1979年轟動全台的油症(多氯聯苯)事件的影片。

在微暗的暮光中,林俊榮帶著家人悄悄地來到現場。他們也是當年事件的受害者。再次來到文武廟,林家人的心情毋寧是複雜的。因為這裡曾是中部油症病患的巡迴醫療站之一,住在福興鄉的林家人,來過這兒接受檢測與治療。

大約二十年前,文武廟廟方以「古剎奉祀關帝暨孔子以及十大聖人偉大神像,莊嚴肅靜,竟然隨便當醫務站,堪稱漠視聖地,尚且患者臉貌醜陋礙眼,妨害來賓觀瞻」為由,希望政府能將醫療站遷往他處。後來因前來求診的病人太少,醫療站便宣布停診了。

對於油症及昔日文武廟曾是油症醫療站的歷史,在廟裡進進出出的人並沒有什麼印象,多半是一問三不知。這也難怪,此事發生的三十年前,有些人恐怕還沒出生呢!就算他們的父母經歷過那段不堪回首的過往,如今大概也沒有人願意再提起了。

 

對漠視早習以為常

多年來,林家對於家裡有人中毒的事,幾乎絕口不提。一方面是覺得丟臉,一方面是因為不知道自己體內仍留有多氯聯苯。

直到《油症――與毒共存》導演蔡崇隆循線到福興鄉進行採訪,引起長女林婉瑜的好奇,開始收集相關資料,這個憨厚的鄉下家庭才赫然驚覺,原來三十年前吃進肚子的毒素,至今非但沒有消失,而且還會傳給下一代!如此一來,這些年來發生在他們身上大大小小的病症,包括原因不明的強烈頭痛、肌肉萎縮無力、腎衰竭、暈眩與癌症……似乎都有了答案!

入夜之後,廟前廣場變得一片寂靜,前來觀賞片子的觀眾屈指可數,顯得有些冷清。

對於民眾冷淡的反應,林家並不感到意外,因為多年來政府部門的推拖、社會輿論的漠視,他們早習以為常了。只是隨著影片中其他受害者幽幽地訴說著過往,他們的心亦不覺隨之起伏震盪。剎時間,星光彷彿消退,他們的思緒也被帶回那段不願回首,也不忍回憶的歲月……


明顯疏失重蹈覆轍

ChenZhaoRu_SurvivingEvil04發生於1979年的油症事件,距今已整整三十年了。這起台灣環境公害史上最嚴重的事件,是因為彰化油脂公司在製造米糠油的過程中,使用毒性極強的多氯聯苯作為熱媒。後因管線破裂,讓多氯聯苯滲入油裡面,造成全台灣至少兩千人中毒,其中以台中、彰化、苗栗等地最為嚴重。當時受害者全身長滿一粒粒化膿氯痤瘡的恐怖模樣,震驚了整個社會。

說起來,這起不幸的意外應該是可以避免的。日本在1968年,便發生過同樣的公害,為什麼11年後的台灣仍會重蹈覆轍?許多國家早已明令禁止多氯聯苯的生產與輸入,為什麼台灣卻遲遲沒有相關法令?公部門如此明顯的疏失,為什麼監察院的調查結果,竟是「各級衛生單位並無行政責任」?

其實答案再簡單也不過了。那就是:政府在事前沒有盡到把關義務,事後也不想扛起任何責任。

 

自願登記契機流逝

事發之後頭幾年,政府陸續在各縣市衛生局增設食品衛生科,專責管理相關問題,首次將多氯聯苯列為檢驗項目。同時,政府也在1981年公布實施「國家賠償法」,保障人民因行政人員疏失所造成的損失。爾後民間更主動成立「消費者文教基金會」,為弱勢的消費者爭取應有的權益。

只是這些救助性的舉措,對於業已中毒的油症患者來說,並無濟於事――因為多氯聯苯中毒造成的油症,完全無藥可醫!

公部門面對此事的態度,始終都很被動,很消極。而且從一開始,油症患者名單的建立,就是個笑話。

原來,那時政府採取一種叫「自願登記」的制度,讓油症患者自行決定是否向衛生單位報到,成為登記有案的患者。也就是說,如果有患者自覺沒有中毒,或是不想承認自己中毒,政府就會睜一隻眼,閉一隻眼,「尊重」當事人的決定。

正因如此,林俊榮一大家子明明都吃了有毒的米糠油,卻只有三人是官方認可的油症患者。而當年身上沒有出現氯痤瘡、自以為逃過一劫的林婉瑜,也就成了「漏網之魚」。不主動,不拒絕,不負責,如此古怪的「自願登記制」,不知流失了多少拯救人命的機會!

 

醫療照護嚴重不足

此外,醫療照護措施的嚴重不足,也是個問題。八○年代初,衛生署曾擬定「多氯聯苯中毒病患治療原則」,指定省立台中、彰化醫院等醫療機構,提供油症患者免費醫療,並委託中國醫藥學院進行中西合併診治,同時還在鹿港等地設置了免費醫療站。只是隨著求診人數日漸減少、預算不足、療效有限等因素,這些免費的服務到了2000年以後,全沒了。

再者,也就是最為人詬病的「油症卡」的問題。早些年,油症患者只要持官方核發的證明文件,也就是油症卡,便可至省立醫院、彰化基督教醫院等醫療機構,接受免費醫療。可是多數醫護人員根本不知道什麼是油症卡(甚至還有人誤以為它是中油的加油卡),拒收的情形時有所聞。而這些醫護人員對病患有意無意的歧視,更是讓油症患者有如受到二度傷害。

「拿那張卡去看病,真的是一點尊嚴都沒有!」幾年前才從私立惠明學校退休、也是油症患者的廖脫如老師忿忿不平地說。當年專門收容視覺障礙學生的惠明學校,師生共有一百多人中毒,至今多數都像她一樣,仍為各種病痛所苦:「每次護士看到那張卡,就露出異樣的眼光,懷疑我根本就沒有中毒,只是為了貪小便宜看免費的病。有一次我去醫院,他們說沒有在收這種卡。我說,可是我去某某醫院,人家就有收啊,結果你知道他跟我說什麼嗎?他說,那你不會去某某醫院就看好了,幹嘛來我們這邊?」


{rokbox album=|myalbum|}images/stories/Feb_2010/ChenZhaoRu_SurvivingEvil/*{/rokbox}

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本文為節錄,完整內容請見2010年2月號《人籟》論辨月刊

No68

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Sunday, 17 January 2010 04:26

影評:出走,尋回自己

是鋼琴演奏家,她的美好生活,被一個劈腿之吻顛覆。目睹深愛15年的男人偷腥,安決定一切歸零,重新找回自己。

於是她取消演出、賣掉公寓、變換造型、告別家人,讓自己人間蒸發。之後她來到一座島嶼,占據崖邊的空屋,跟自己認真相處。在無盡的大海面前,安開始放空,讓一波波未知,刷洗出一個她不知道的安。

電影《女人出走》改編自龔固爾文學獎得主巴斯卡‧季聶(Pascal Quignard)的小說《亞美莉雅別墅》(Villa Amalia)。導演班諾‧賈克深受小說的故事吸引,在該書正式出版前,便決定購下電影拍攝版權,並邀得坎城影后伊莎貝‧雨蓓(Isabelle Huppert)、凱撒影帝尚雨果‧安哥拉(Jean-Hugues Anglade)演出。另外還有法國名導札維耶‧波瓦(Xavier Beauvois)在片中的精彩客串,與雨蓓有場對手戲。

隔過一層不透明紙的迷濛氣氛,加上雨蓓特有的冷傲與疏淡氣質,整部電影讓觀眾彷彿也置身霧中。故事隨著安踏遍巴黎市區,出走德國、瑞士,最終在義大利具體地形塑起安與這座遺世小屋間的共生關係。


境遇隱喻生命

原著小說作者巴斯卡‧季聶,生於1947年,對於哲學、歷史、音樂各方面都有深廣的研究。他自1969年開始創作,著作豐富多樣,無論隨筆、評述或小說都廣受好評,而且有大量小說膾炙人口,如《溫特堡的沙龍》(Le Salon du Wurtemberg)、《香波堡的樓梯》(Les Escaliers de Chambord)、《美國占領時期》(L'Occupation américaine)等等。

巴斯卡‧季聶1991年出版的小說《世界的每一個早晨》(Tous les matins du monde),後改編為電影《日出時讓悲傷終結》。這改變了他的寫作生涯,直到2000年,才重回文字創作懷抱,以《羅馬露台》(Terrasse à Rome)一書獲多種獎項。2002年,他以《漂泊的陰影》(Les Ombres errantes)一書榮獲龔固爾文學獎,被《世界報》(Le Monde)譽為當前法國作家中最具創作與創新力的一位。

本片原著小說也有著這位作家一貫的風格――對藝術的反思、對人生的洞察,對生存的探索與表述。簡單卻明確的故事梗概,讓主人翁的整趟旅程瀰漫大量未知與不確定性。而主人翁一路上的遭遇,恰恰也是生命的隱喻,不斷的遇見與分離,不斷地陷入其中卻也抽身離開。

在巴斯卡‧季聶另本台灣有中譯本出版的小說《羅馬露台》,有這樣一段文字:「到了某個年紀,人所遭遇的即不再是生命而是時光。我們停止了注視生命活著,我們看見的是時光正在大口吞噬生命。於是心為之痛。我們死命攀附著幾片木頭,為的是尚能再多看一些從世界的這一頭到那一頭的流血演出,而不要身陷其中。」這傳達了作者一貫關切的中心題目,而這也無處不在地流洩在電影改編的《女人出走》。


片段拼貼全景

HuangYiXi_VillaAmalia02導演班諾‧賈克1947年生於巴黎,曾與名作家導演瑪格麗特‧莒哈絲(Marguerite Duras)合作,擔任助導。1974年開始個人影像創作生涯,編導過三十多部影片,也導過舞台劇,擔任過坎城影展評審,代表作品包括《托斯卡》(Tosca)、《再會十九歲》(À tout de suite)、《賤民》(L'Intouchable)等片。《女人出走》是他第五度和伊莎貝‧雨蓓合作。

班諾‧賈克在台灣放映過且最知名的作品,有與瑪格麗特‧莒哈絲合作的《夜舶》(Le Navire Night,他擔任副導),以及近似公路電影的《再會十九歲》。論者嘗謂班諾‧賈克電影為「班諾‧賈克電影中有故事,但敘事並不占絕對重要性,更多的心力是花在經營角色。班諾‧賈克的電影特別關注事件與情境,不管其作為背景或主要敘事場景。將所有的段落組合起來,創造了一幅刺繡、一個大型謎語,像是有個人站在那裡,描述起整個大千世界的視野,它們既是片段的,卻又拼貼成一個完整的全景。而這些故事,通常又以女性角色為中心」。


斷然起身離去

《女人出走》有一個很唐突的開場。女子發現情人外遇後,決然地說走就走,不只不要這份感情,連工作、房子、一切都不要了。而且一路離開,一路隱姓埋名,簡直不像是傷心出走,而像是被追殺到天涯海角的通緝犯。

跨過了不同城市鄉鎮與國家,不斷改頭換面,女子的表情始終堅毅。這份無法從她的行為或表情追蹤到動機的古怪,慢慢地瀰漫成一種更為本質性的,關於個人對於其生存之風雨飄搖之對決的勇氣或決定。非常誘人而迷人。

攝影機得急急追趕,才不會跟丟這位電影的主人翁。追著她像是明確知道要前往哪裡地拐過每個彎角,追著她忙不迭地又換下一套服裝、扔掉一批私人物件,追著她的不斷拒絕、刪除、隱瞞。一路下來,銀幕彼端的我們卻從困惑、錯愕,到變得了然與會心。


問題反求諸己

人生陷入空乏,想像起來,應是一種流散、鬆解、全身綿軟無力的狀態,因為我們一直賴以為生的人生突然被抽走了底,我們還要很久時間,需要恢復理智,釐清事情,努力振作以開啟新人生。《女人出走》中,安的行徑因此顯得如此唐突。她這般堅毅,大步跨開……,妳怎麼會知道妳要去哪裡呢?

但慢慢的我們就領會過來了。是的,我們確實不知道我們要去哪裡,但我們太確定、太確定一件事,那就是――離開這裡。

離開這裡,越遠越好,離開這個男人這個我們的房子,離開這個城市,離開這個事業與全部人際關係,離開回憶,離開所有曾有的願望、展望、慾望,離開曾經與此刻的恐懼……

核心的問題不在任何地方,而在我們自己身上。我們不是因為那樣的場景突然心碎倒下,我們是因為自己是這樣的自己,便在某個最後一根羽毛的降臨時刻砰然倒下。要站起來,不是解決那個男人相關點滴,而是重審、重啟與整個自己的關係。


----------------------------------------
導演:班諾‧ 賈克(Benoît Jacquot)
片名:《女人出走》(Villa Amalia
出品年分:2009年
台灣上映時間:2009年12月(佳映娛樂發行)
----------------------------------------

{rokbox album=|myalbum|}images/stories/Feb_2010/HuangYiXi_VillaAmalia/*{/rokbox}

劇照提供/佳映娛樂



本文為節錄,完整內容請見2010年2月號《人籟》論辨月刊

No68

女子為何出走?欲知箇中緣由,請購買本期雜誌

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Sunday, 17 January 2010 00:21

顛覆生死禁忌:瑞可雷塔墓園小記

阿根廷首都布宜諾斯艾利斯就像世界其他大城市一樣兼容並蓄。在那裡,最富有的居民和底層窮人的住所也許相距不遠——這些人幾乎沒受過什麼教育,也鮮有棲身之所,完全屈居於社會體制外。

這座城市是個大雜匯:來自歐洲人的影響和彭巴草原上南美牛仔的風格共存一處,而為城市增色不少的當代拉丁流行文化,則依靠足球與「康比亞」(cumbia,起源於黑奴舞蹈的一種拉丁舞曲,特色是小幅度的步伐和獨特的胯部擺動)、「雷鬼動」(reggaeton,融合雷鬼樂和Hip Hop的電子舞曲,節奏十分強烈)一類的樂種,製造出當地獨特的色彩。從文化上來說,光把城市中相互交織的部分拼湊在一起,還無法解開布宜諾斯艾利斯的謎團;這個方程式還有許多值得思量的地方。


社會名流安息之所

瑞可雷塔(Recoleta)墓園是阿根廷上流階級最後的堡壘之一,許多有錢有勢者皆葬於此地。這座由法國工程師普羅斯伯‧卡特林(Prosper Catelin)所設計的大理石迷宮裡,聚集了軍人、政客(前阿根廷第一夫人艾娃‧裴隆(María Eva Duarte de Perón)是其中國際知名度最高者)、科學家與地主,以及其他權貴。

最墮落與最傑出的阿根廷人,其長眠處可謂近在咫尺,而有些前衛人士與作惡多端者亦安息此地。墓園的建築相當精緻,散發著鮮明的宗教氣息,看起來既肅穆又充滿不祥。這裡表現出天主教圖像的陰暗面,藉由刻意強調的憂傷,提醒我們人生的有限、死後的懲罰,和痛苦之必然。


模糊生與死的界線

但真正讓我們看清瑞可雷塔墓園的,卻是隨之興起的夜生活與歡樂的迷幻世界;今日圍繞在墓園旁的除了酒吧和餐廳,甚至還有妓院。我們可以將這些有趣的插曲,視為時下虛無主義對那些墓園聖像的表態:因為在傳統上,宗教肖像理應喚起寧靜和尊重的情感,不過相反的是,這裡每週聚集了許多享樂者,距離墳區只有數公尺之遙。他們不僅挑戰了亡者的領域,更當著對方的面,展現食色之欲和邪惡帶來的滿足。

在死者安息處讚頌生命」大概是這些活動奉為圭臬的座右銘。有件奇聞更能彰顯這種瑞可雷塔的特殊心態:幾年前,在墓園附近找樂子的人開始入侵生與死的界線——有些膽大的性工作者,選擇在荒廢的陵墓裡提供性服務。她們的客戶相當奇特,會對四處瀰漫的陰森鬼魅氛圍感到特別興奮。這聽起來令人毛骨悚然,卻是真實發生的事。


在地詮釋,顛覆禁忌

Marcos_Recoleta_02瑞可雷塔墓園也是都市發展的沈默見證者:當地的生活被固定在一種類似迪士尼樂園的形式裡,彷彿處於更為保守與傳統的昔日時光。但布宜諾斯艾利斯並非聖者之地;打從一開始,這裡便靠著走私與黑市生意得以繁盛,而相較於其他因素——尤其是宗教規範——城市的擴展動機總和「非正當」交易有更密切的關係。

在整塊美洲大陸上,天主教一類的信仰,和其他從西班牙或歐洲諸國進口的商品並沒有太大區別。舉例來說,天主教本身的外來特質在阿根廷北部相當明顯。我到當地旅行時,常常訝異於原住民所蓋的教堂:因為使用在地建材,兼以當地部落接受耶穌會士的教誨,在建築裝飾中,透露出異教在圖像與藝術動機上的深遠影響,讓這些建築看起來十分怪異而奇特。當然,這些原住民逐漸吸收了天主教的教義,卻沒有照單全收。

瑞可雷塔墓園和周遭發生的事情大約便是如此:它們既是宗教的在地性詮釋,也是對於禁忌的顛覆性表述。比起點綴墓園的冰冷大理石小天使和聖母像,布宜諾斯艾利斯的其他地方似乎更能以異教形式實踐天主教信仰;這應該算是對宗教禁令的一種回應吧。

也許激情和聖性可以共處——至少在瑞可雷塔的特殊心態中是這樣沒錯。


攝影/ 龔武(Marcos Gonzales Gava)      翻譯/吳思薇



本文亦見於2010年2月號《人籟》論辨月刊

No68

想看看更多關於這座傳奇墓園的奇妙風景,請購買本期雜誌!

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