Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Wednesday, 25 July 2007
Thursday, 26 July 2007 01:13

邁向廣闊的天地

There used to be an aura about journalism: typewriter, cigarettes, sandwiches and Watergate-like investigations were all part of it. Not much of it is still alive. Typewriters are definitely out. Smoking is not cool anymore, and eating sandwiches is bad for your health. As to investigations, they are now supposed to be conducted online by determined bloggers who make use of their collective intelligence and power for bringing culprits to virtual scaffolds. In a Web 2.0 world, no space is left for lonely cowboys and journalists. Anyway, who now bothers to read newspapers?

And yet, we do need journalists. We need them even more now that information is circulating in such a way as to make it less traceable than was the case before, less relevant and more dubious than at any time in modern history. Internet info-mediators are certainly a precious resource for enlarging our access to the world, but professional journalism compensates for the amateurish outlook of the information age. Journalism might be less glamorous than in the past; still, the profession remains indispensable in a truly democratic society.

What kind of journalists do we need? Some key words will never change: humility, integrity and decency remain core values. Professionalism is not an empty word either. In this trade, it refers to a capacity to analyze a source, to quote it in a correct way, to confront and link together various items of information, and to detect contradictions in the accounts of a case. It also means that the journalist must somehow specialize in a field of expertise: science is a tricky field, but we need cold-blooded, rigorous journalists for helping us to critically evaluate the nature of a scientific discovery; economics and business might be tedious, but we need sharp-tongued journalists who will go beyond the optimistic statements of entrepreneurs and central bankers; war reporting is certainly a dangerous exercise but who else will report on war crimes and hopes for reconciliation than a fearless reporter? Professionalism also means the capacity to master a number of techniques and media that interconnect. A professional journalist goes from the Internet to the newspaper and is able to blur the frontier of written, audio and visual reportage in a way that his or her predecessors would never have dreamt of.

Last but not least, a journalist is an ‘interdisciplinary specialist.” In a world of divided languages, he specializes in bringing together different fields of expertise and shaping the language through which knowledge and analytical capacity remain a common social asset. In that respect also journalism is indispensable to the democratic fabric. The glamour might have faded, but the challenge is greater than ever!

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Thursday, 26 July 2007 01:12

網站串連.生的希望

There used to be an aura about journalism: typewriter, cigarettes, sandwiches and Watergate-like investigations were all part of it. Not much of it is still alive. Typewriters are definitely out. Smoking is not cool anymore, and eating sandwiches is bad for your health. As to investigations, they are now supposed to be conducted online by determined bloggers who make use of their collective intelligence and power for bringing culprits to virtual scaffolds. In a Web 2.0 world, no space is left for lonely cowboys and journalists. Anyway, who now bothers to read newspapers?

And yet, we do need journalists. We need them even more now that information is circulating in such a way as to make it less traceable than was the case before, less relevant and more dubious than at any time in modern history. Internet info-mediators are certainly a precious resource for enlarging our access to the world, but professional journalism compensates for the amateurish outlook of the information age. Journalism might be less glamorous than in the past; still, the profession remains indispensable in a truly democratic society.

What kind of journalists do we need? Some key words will never change: humility, integrity and decency remain core values. Professionalism is not an empty word either. In this trade, it refers to a capacity to analyze a source, to quote it in a correct way, to confront and link together various items of information, and to detect contradictions in the accounts of a case. It also means that the journalist must somehow specialize in a field of expertise: science is a tricky field, but we need cold-blooded, rigorous journalists for helping us to critically evaluate the nature of a scientific discovery; economics and business might be tedious, but we need sharp-tongued journalists who will go beyond the optimistic statements of entrepreneurs and central bankers; war reporting is certainly a dangerous exercise but who else will report on war crimes and hopes for reconciliation than a fearless reporter? Professionalism also means the capacity to master a number of techniques and media that interconnect. A professional journalist goes from the Internet to the newspaper and is able to blur the frontier of written, audio and visual reportage in a way that his or her predecessors would never have dreamt of.

Last but not least, a journalist is an ‘interdisciplinary specialist.” In a world of divided languages, he specializes in bringing together different fields of expertise and shaping the language through which knowledge and analytical capacity remain a common social asset. In that respect also journalism is indispensable to the democratic fabric. The glamour might have faded, but the challenge is greater than ever!

=============================================
Know more about eRenlai statement

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{rokbox}media/articles/Jounalist.jpg{/rokbox}
Wednesday, 25 July 2007 23:45

A UN organization for the environment

There used to be an aura about journalism: typewriter, cigarettes, sandwiches and Watergate-like investigations were all part of it. Not much of it is still alive. Typewriters are definitely out. Smoking is not cool anymore, and eating sandwiches is bad for your health. As to investigations, they are now supposed to be conducted online by determined bloggers who make use of their collective intelligence and power for bringing culprits to virtual scaffolds. In a Web 2.0 world, no space is left for lonely cowboys and journalists. Anyway, who now bothers to read newspapers?

And yet, we do need journalists. We need them even more now that information is circulating in such a way as to make it less traceable than was the case before, less relevant and more dubious than at any time in modern history. Internet info-mediators are certainly a precious resource for enlarging our access to the world, but professional journalism compensates for the amateurish outlook of the information age. Journalism might be less glamorous than in the past; still, the profession remains indispensable in a truly democratic society.

What kind of journalists do we need? Some key words will never change: humility, integrity and decency remain core values. Professionalism is not an empty word either. In this trade, it refers to a capacity to analyze a source, to quote it in a correct way, to confront and link together various items of information, and to detect contradictions in the accounts of a case. It also means that the journalist must somehow specialize in a field of expertise: science is a tricky field, but we need cold-blooded, rigorous journalists for helping us to critically evaluate the nature of a scientific discovery; economics and business might be tedious, but we need sharp-tongued journalists who will go beyond the optimistic statements of entrepreneurs and central bankers; war reporting is certainly a dangerous exercise but who else will report on war crimes and hopes for reconciliation than a fearless reporter? Professionalism also means the capacity to master a number of techniques and media that interconnect. A professional journalist goes from the Internet to the newspaper and is able to blur the frontier of written, audio and visual reportage in a way that his or her predecessors would never have dreamt of.

Last but not least, a journalist is an ‘interdisciplinary specialist.” In a world of divided languages, he specializes in bringing together different fields of expertise and shaping the language through which knowledge and analytical capacity remain a common social asset. In that respect also journalism is indispensable to the democratic fabric. The glamour might have faded, but the challenge is greater than ever!

=============================================
Know more about eRenlai statement

Attached media :
{rokbox}media/articles/Jounalist.jpg{/rokbox}
Wednesday, 25 July 2007 22:51

Social Ressources for China's Development

【谢静雯 翻译】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四点五就在中国。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中国只有百分之十八的林地,与百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林资
源贫乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林占地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在过去五十年里,中国历经三次重大的森林滥伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大跃进时期(1958-1961)
为了用作土法炼钢的燃料,将森林整座整座地砍伐殆尽。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命时期(1966-1971)
为了栽种玉米与小麦,将好几公顷的森林坡地辟为耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

经济改革的发端(八○年代初期)
农民获准握有更多权责,他们因害怕政策可能再度生变,而将承包经营地上的树木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在这三个时期里,丧失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生态系统中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林为形形色色的动植物提供栖息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
调节水循环并且稳定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-树顶拦截大气的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸发而回到大气中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分布到土壤里
-Erosion control
控制土壤冲蚀
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透过光合作用来帮忙调节气候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物获取太阳光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取与储存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所产生的碳水化合物帮助植物成长
-release oxygen
释放氧气

The effects of deforestation
森林滥伐的结果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多样性
-decreased habitat
栖息地减少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所损失
-species threatened with extinction
物种面临灭绝的威胁

·Floods
水灾
-flow of water changes
水流变化了
-runoff increases
迳流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水温上升

·Erosion
冲蚀
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水与风使冲蚀递增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤冲蚀:因为有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中国面临世界上最大的土壤冲蚀问题。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已占据20%的地表,而且每年继续以2,500平方公里的速度扩散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水灾:中国在1998年遇到有史以来最惨烈的水灾,造成3,600人丧生、五百万户住家毁于一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多样化的丧失:世界濒临灭绝的物种有百分之十五至二十在中国,比世界平均值百分之十到十五还高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中国政府针对百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,强制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大规模的森林复育行动以及生物多样化的保育计画。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
结果,自1982到2005年,中国的森林植被净增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中国的森林滥伐与水患:1998年的转捩点
-Main areas of deforestation
森林滥伐的主要地区
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年间水灾肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林与保护区
-Temperate desert
温带沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
温带大陆性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亚热带潮湿林
-Natural reserves
自然保留区
-Biological reserves
生态保育区

The trend
当前趋势
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身为世界最大的木材进口国
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中国现在正将森林滥伐的现象驱往东南亚与西非

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_cn.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}
Wednesday, 25 July 2007 22:51

China's Present Challenges -- 02

【谢静雯 翻译】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四点五就在中国。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中国只有百分之十八的林地,与百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林资
源贫乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林占地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在过去五十年里,中国历经三次重大的森林滥伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大跃进时期(1958-1961)
为了用作土法炼钢的燃料,将森林整座整座地砍伐殆尽。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命时期(1966-1971)
为了栽种玉米与小麦,将好几公顷的森林坡地辟为耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

经济改革的发端(八○年代初期)
农民获准握有更多权责,他们因害怕政策可能再度生变,而将承包经营地上的树木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在这三个时期里,丧失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生态系统中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林为形形色色的动植物提供栖息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
调节水循环并且稳定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-树顶拦截大气的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸发而回到大气中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分布到土壤里
-Erosion control
控制土壤冲蚀
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透过光合作用来帮忙调节气候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物获取太阳光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取与储存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所产生的碳水化合物帮助植物成长
-release oxygen
释放氧气

The effects of deforestation
森林滥伐的结果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多样性
-decreased habitat
栖息地减少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所损失
-species threatened with extinction
物种面临灭绝的威胁

·Floods
水灾
-flow of water changes
水流变化了
-runoff increases
迳流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水温上升

·Erosion
冲蚀
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水与风使冲蚀递增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤冲蚀:因为有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中国面临世界上最大的土壤冲蚀问题。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已占据20%的地表,而且每年继续以2,500平方公里的速度扩散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水灾:中国在1998年遇到有史以来最惨烈的水灾,造成3,600人丧生、五百万户住家毁于一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多样化的丧失:世界濒临灭绝的物种有百分之十五至二十在中国,比世界平均值百分之十到十五还高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中国政府针对百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,强制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大规模的森林复育行动以及生物多样化的保育计画。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
结果,自1982到2005年,中国的森林植被净增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中国的森林滥伐与水患:1998年的转捩点
-Main areas of deforestation
森林滥伐的主要地区
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年间水灾肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林与保护区
-Temperate desert
温带沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
温带大陆性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亚热带潮湿林
-Natural reserves
自然保留区
-Biological reserves
生态保育区

The trend
当前趋势
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身为世界最大的木材进口国
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中国现在正将森林滥伐的现象驱往东南亚与西非

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_cn.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}
Wednesday, 25 July 2007 22:48

China's Present Challenges--01

【谢静雯 翻译】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四点五就在中国。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中国只有百分之十八的林地,与百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林资
源贫乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林占地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在过去五十年里,中国历经三次重大的森林滥伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大跃进时期(1958-1961)
为了用作土法炼钢的燃料,将森林整座整座地砍伐殆尽。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命时期(1966-1971)
为了栽种玉米与小麦,将好几公顷的森林坡地辟为耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

经济改革的发端(八○年代初期)
农民获准握有更多权责,他们因害怕政策可能再度生变,而将承包经营地上的树木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在这三个时期里,丧失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生态系统中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林为形形色色的动植物提供栖息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
调节水循环并且稳定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-树顶拦截大气的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸发而回到大气中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分布到土壤里
-Erosion control
控制土壤冲蚀
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透过光合作用来帮忙调节气候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物获取太阳光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取与储存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所产生的碳水化合物帮助植物成长
-release oxygen
释放氧气

The effects of deforestation
森林滥伐的结果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多样性
-decreased habitat
栖息地减少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所损失
-species threatened with extinction
物种面临灭绝的威胁

·Floods
水灾
-flow of water changes
水流变化了
-runoff increases
迳流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水温上升

·Erosion
冲蚀
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水与风使冲蚀递增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤冲蚀:因为有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中国面临世界上最大的土壤冲蚀问题。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已占据20%的地表,而且每年继续以2,500平方公里的速度扩散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水灾:中国在1998年遇到有史以来最惨烈的水灾,造成3,600人丧生、五百万户住家毁于一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多样化的丧失:世界濒临灭绝的物种有百分之十五至二十在中国,比世界平均值百分之十到十五还高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中国政府针对百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,强制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大规模的森林复育行动以及生物多样化的保育计画。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
结果,自1982到2005年,中国的森林植被净增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中国的森林滥伐与水患:1998年的转捩点
-Main areas of deforestation
森林滥伐的主要地区
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年间水灾肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林与保护区
-Temperate desert
温带沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
温带大陆性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亚热带潮湿林
-Natural reserves
自然保留区
-Biological reserves
生态保育区

The trend
当前趋势
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身为世界最大的木材进口国
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中国现在正将森林滥伐的现象驱往东南亚与西非

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_cn.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}
Wednesday, 25 July 2007 21:53

迈向广阔的天地

【谢静雯 翻译】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四点五就在中国。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中国只有百分之十八的林地,与百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林资
源贫乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林占地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在过去五十年里,中国历经三次重大的森林滥伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大跃进时期(1958-1961)
为了用作土法炼钢的燃料,将森林整座整座地砍伐殆尽。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命时期(1966-1971)
为了栽种玉米与小麦,将好几公顷的森林坡地辟为耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

经济改革的发端(八○年代初期)
农民获准握有更多权责,他们因害怕政策可能再度生变,而将承包经营地上的树木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在这三个时期里,丧失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生态系统中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林为形形色色的动植物提供栖息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
调节水循环并且稳定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-树顶拦截大气的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸发而回到大气中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分布到土壤里
-Erosion control
控制土壤冲蚀
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透过光合作用来帮忙调节气候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物获取太阳光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取与储存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所产生的碳水化合物帮助植物成长
-release oxygen
释放氧气

The effects of deforestation
森林滥伐的结果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多样性
-decreased habitat
栖息地减少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所损失
-species threatened with extinction
物种面临灭绝的威胁

·Floods
水灾
-flow of water changes
水流变化了
-runoff increases
迳流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水温上升

·Erosion
冲蚀
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水与风使冲蚀递增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤冲蚀:因为有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中国面临世界上最大的土壤冲蚀问题。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已占据20%的地表,而且每年继续以2,500平方公里的速度扩散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水灾:中国在1998年遇到有史以来最惨烈的水灾,造成3,600人丧生、五百万户住家毁于一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多样化的丧失:世界濒临灭绝的物种有百分之十五至二十在中国,比世界平均值百分之十到十五还高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中国政府针对百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,强制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大规模的森林复育行动以及生物多样化的保育计画。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
结果,自1982到2005年,中国的森林植被净增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中国的森林滥伐与水患:1998年的转捩点
-Main areas of deforestation
森林滥伐的主要地区
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年间水灾肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林与保护区
-Temperate desert
温带沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
温带大陆性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亚热带潮湿林
-Natural reserves
自然保留区
-Biological reserves
生态保育区

The trend
当前趋势
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身为世界最大的木材进口国
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中国现在正将森林滥伐的现象驱往东南亚与西非

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_cn.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}
Wednesday, 25 July 2007 20:19

人不是东西

人不是东西。对于这点,大家都很赞同,而且没有异议。但我们真的都遵循这个准则来对待自己和他人吗?我们在社会上的行事是不是暗地里与这个准则背道而驰呢?
懂得人与物的区别是儿童正常心理发展的一部分。心理学家格外重视婴儿出生后第九个月的转变。这个时期的婴儿似乎已经能够明显地感觉到,在他面前的并不只是一个东西而已,他能够从眼前的东西得到满足,同时感受到眼前看著他的是一个有意图有情感的生命。透过游戏以及各种体验,婴儿明了这个生命像他一样有兴趣去了解其他东西、其他人。由此,婴幼儿肯定他人的存在,开始与他人有丰富的互动。人与人的互动建立了人类的情感世界、社会生活,而且是培育美德的基础。
不过,许多社会学家和经济学家早就注意到,人类社会的互动方式已经将人的位阶降到物的层次。物的定义,就是预期东西可以生产的效能:我若拿到一块木头,我能用它制造长笛或做成椅子;我若找到一块石头,我能绑上绳子把东西吊起来;我若有一个玻璃杯,我可以拿它来喝水…人类在现代社会的工作模式,使得我们对他人的期待变成是功能性的,我们只希望他人完成某项工作,不管这个人的个性、情绪,也不管我久候不来的服务是否中途遇到什么阻碍——我们把他人当成物品。当然,我们可以说落实工作是社会前进的力量,而且某个程度来说很有效率。但曾几何时,我们已经不把「他人」看成人,没有想要了解别人失序的好奇心,更没有互动的乐趣,我们的社会难道就不会扭曲变形吗?
德国哲学家霍耐特(Axel Honneth)认为社会关系的「物化」越来越标志著我们的社会,今日招募员工的面试方式就是一个例子。招雇的公司希望求职人自我介绍,描述个人的工作能力,并说明未来的贡献,为的是预测这个人的工作成果,就像买一台新电脑一样。在网际网路上交友,每个人描述自己的方式就像在定义一项物品,年龄、身高、体重、喜好等等,即使要在网路上找另一半也是如此。换句话说,我们不仅仅把他人当成物品,整个社会鼓励我们把自己物化为东西以符合别人的要求。人不再是人,而是被要求生产的东西:传承后代、工作、新鲜感…
我们必须经常记得,时时反观自己造就的成果以及产品,学习无偿心与他人往来并欣赏他人…若没有真正认清自己、肯定他人,就没有真正的人性社会。

附加的多媒体:
{rokbox}media/articles/benoitdessin023.jpg{/rokbox}
Wednesday, 25 July 2007 17:48

人不是東西

人不是東西。對於這點,大家都很贊同,而且沒有異議。但我們真的都遵循這個準則來對待自己和他人嗎?我們在社會上的行事是不是暗地裡與這個準則背道而馳呢?

懂得人與物的區別是兒童正常心理發展的一部分。心理學家格外重視嬰兒出生後第九個月的轉變。這個時期的嬰兒似乎已經能夠明顯地感覺到,在他面前的並不只是一個東西而已,他能夠從眼前的東西得到滿足,同時感受到眼前看著他的是一個有意圖有情感的生命。透過遊戲以及各種體驗,嬰兒明瞭這個生命像他一樣有興趣去了解其他東西、其他人。由此,嬰幼兒肯定他人的存在,開始與他人有豐富的互動。人與人的互動建立了人類的情感世界、社會生活,而且是培育美德的基礎。

不過,許多社會學家和經濟學家早就注意到,人類社會的互動方式已經將人的位階降到物的層次。物的定義,就是預期東西可以生產的效能:我若拿到一塊木頭,我能用它製造長笛或做成椅子;我若找到一塊石頭,我能綁上繩子把東西吊起來;我若有一個玻璃杯,我可以拿它來喝水…人類在現代社會的工作模式,使得我們對他人的期待變成是功能性的,我們只希望他人完成某項工作,不管這個人的個性、情緒,也不管我久候不來的服務是否中途遇到什麼阻礙——我們把他人當成物品。當然,我們可以說落實工作是社會前進的力量,而且某個程度來說很有效率。但曾幾何時,我們已經不把「他人」看成人,沒有想要了解別人失序的好奇心,更沒有互動的樂趣,我們的社會難道就不會扭曲變形嗎?

德國哲學家霍耐特(Axel Honneth)認為社會關係的「物化」越來越標誌著我們的社會,今日招募員工的面試方式就是一個例子。招雇的公司希望求職人自我介紹,描述個人的工作能力,並說明未來的貢獻,為的是預測這個人的工作成果,就像買一台新電腦一樣。在網際網路上交友,每個人描述自己的方式就像在定義一項物品,年齡、身高、體重、喜好等等,即使要在網路上找另一半也是如此。換句話說,我們不僅僅把他人當成物品,整個社會鼓勵我們把自己物化為東西以符合別人的要求。人不再是人,而是被要求生產的東西:傳承後代、工作、新鮮感…

我們必須經常記得,時時反觀自己造就的成果以及產品,學習無償心與他人往來並欣賞他人…若沒有真正認清自己、肯定他人,就沒有真正的人性社會。

Wednesday, 25 July 2007 17:39

中國森林

【謝靜雯 翻譯】

·China is home to 4.5% of the world’s forests.
世界的森林有百分之四點五就在中國。
·With only 18% of forested land, compared to a world average of 34%, China is poor in forest resources.
中國只有百分之十八的林地,與百分之三十四的世界林地平均值相比,森林資
源貧乏。
·Virgin forests account for 1% of its territory.
原始林佔地百分之一。
·In the last 50 years China has undergone three major deforestations
在過去五十年裡,中國歷經三次重大的森林濫伐。
·The Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
Entire forests were depleted to fuel backyard furnaces for smelting steel.

大躍進時期(1958-1961)
為了用作土法煉鋼的燃料,將森林整座整座地砍伐殆盡。
·The Cultural Revolution (1966-1971)
Hectares of forested slopes were converted into arable land, meant for corn and wheat cultivation.

文化大革命時期(1966-1971)
為了栽種玉米與小麥,將好幾公頃的森林坡地闢為耕田。
·Beginning of the Economic Reforms (Early 80s)
Farmers, allowed increased responsibility and fearing the policy might change again, felled all the trees on their contracted land.

經濟改革的發端(八○年代初期)
農民獲准握有更多權責,他們因害怕政策可能再度生變,而將承包經營地上的樹木一概砍倒。
·During these three episodes, 20% to 40% of the forest cover was lost.
在這三個時期裡,喪失了百分之二十到四十的森林植被。

The role of forests in the Ecosystem
森林在生態系統中所扮演的角色
·Forest provides habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals
森林為形形色色的動植物提供棲息地。
·Regulates the water cycle and stabilizes soil
調節水循環並且穩定土壤
Treetops intercept precipitation
-樹頂攔截大氣的降水
-Some evaporates back to the atmosphere
有些蒸發而回到大氣中
-Some is redistributed to the soil
有些重新分佈到土壤裡
-Erosion control
控制土壤沖蝕
·Helps moderate the climate through photosynthesis
透過光合作用來幫忙調節氣候
-plants capture sunlight energy
植物獲取太陽光能
-absorb groundwater
吸收地下水
-soak up & store CO2
吸取與儲存二氧化碳
-carbohydrates produced to help plants grow
所產生的碳水化合物幫助植物成長
-release oxygen
釋放氧氣

The effects of deforestation
森林濫伐的結果
·Biodiversity loss
失去生物多樣性
-decreased habitat
棲息地減少
-loss of vegetation
植群有所損失
-species threatened with extinction
物種面臨滅絕的威脅

·Floods
水災
-flow of water changes
水流變化了
-runoff increases
逕流增加了
-water temperature near banks rises
近岸的水溫上昇

·Erosion
沖蝕
-Increased erosion from water & wind
水與風使沖蝕遞增

·Soil erosion: with 37% of its territory affected, China faces a world’s biggest soil erosion problem.
土壤沖蝕:因為有百分之三十七的土地遭受波及,中國面臨世界上最大的土壤沖蝕問題。
·Desertification: Deserts already occupy 20% of the surface and continue to spread at the pace of 2,500 km2 a year.
沙漠化:沙漠已佔據20%的地表,而且每年繼續以2,500平方公里的速度擴散。
·Floods: In 1998, China suffered the worst floods in its history, causing 3,600 deaths and destroying 5 million homes.
水災:中國在1998年遇到有史以來最慘烈的水災,造成3,600人喪生、五百萬戶住家毀於一
旦。
·Biodiversity loss: China has 15%-20% of the world’s endangered species, higher than the world average of 10-15%.
生物多樣化的喪失:世界瀕臨滅絕的物種有百分之十五至二十在中國,比世界平均值百分之十到十五還高。

Recent Policies
近期政策

·In 1998 the government imposed a logging ban on 17% of forested areas in the upper reaches of major rivers.
在1998年,中國政府針對百分之十七主要河流上游的林木地,強制施行伐木禁令。
·Massive reforestation efforts and biodiversity conservation projects were implemented.
履行了大規模的森林復育行動以及生物多樣化的保育計畫。
·As a result from 1982 to 2005 China has recorded a net gain of 20% in forest cover.
結果,自1982到2005年,中國的森林植被淨增了百分之二十。

China’s Deforestation & Floods: the turning point of 1998
中國的森林濫伐與水患:1998年的轉捩點
-Main areas of deforestation
森林濫伐的主要地區
-Provinces affected by the 1998 floods
1998年間水災肆虐的省分
-Provinces where the 1998 logging ban is in force
施行1998年伐木禁令的省分

Deserts, Forests & Protected Areas
沙漠、森林與保護區
-Temperate desert
溫帶沙漠
-Temperate continental forest
溫帶大陸性森林
-Subtropical humid forest
亞熱帶潮濕林
-Natural reserves
自然保留區
-Biological reserves
生態保育區

The trend
當前趨勢
·As the world’s largest importer of wood
身為世界最大的木材進口國
·China is now driving deforestation to South East Asia & West Africa
中國現在正將森林濫伐的現象驅往東南亞與西非

附加的多媒體:
{rokbox size=|544 384|thumb=|images/slideshow_tw.jpg|}media/articles/Forest_ch.swf{/rokbox}
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