Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Tuesday, 30 December 2008
Wednesday, 31 December 2008 06:29

六位大师的童年框景

横跨二十世纪的六位电影大导演,六段童年故事的切片。不管童年散发微光、蒙胧与强光,日后都串起光芒大师一路探索的灯火…

导演 彦高乐Yann Le Gal等六人
编剧 彦高乐
《六个大师的童年》(Childhoods)
法国出品.2007年德国首映
台湾上映时间 2009年1月1日(联影/联赢发行)

从六段故事的吉光片羽,透露六位电影大师影片中日后为人称道的线索。
《六个大师的童年》描述的是电影大师成为大师的童年轶事。不一定愉悦,不一定被保护,不一定被允许,但他们都有一双探索的眼睛。
这六段童年故事发生的时间是他们与家人朝夕相处的生活、闲暇时光与学校中的逃逸时刻。时间上让观者感觉与他们共渡一段时光,编剧选取真相、差异、阶级、嫉妒、幻想、勇气等不同角度的轶事片段,叙事色彩相连,同时是艺术教育的素材。

真相与差异
〈门后的秘密〉描述的是出生于奥地利导演佛列兹朗(Fritz Lang, 1890-1976)的往事。他十岁参加父母亲的婚礼时,惊觉到的秘密让他坚定的信念瓦解:眷恋的母亲,犹太人的身份,粉碎的世界…期待、女性、等待中的确信与误会于是偷偷地渗入他的底片。
〈拜托开门噢〉说的是一段法国导演贾克大地(Jacques Tati, 1907-1982)与同学、老师拍合照的故事:身高过于高大的他怎么都走不进相机的镜头里,于是出现他的一小段漫游。忧郁、对望、散步、异于常人高度的观想后来转变为《我的舅舅》(Mon Oncle, 1958)中的逗趣、欢笑、紧凑,目不暇给的速度是嘲讽现代科技的节拍。

阶级与嫉妒
〈秘密基地和旧皮鞋〉中叙述尚雷诺(Jean Renoir, 1894-1979)在假期中与一名贫困少年的相遇,两个人在河畔相谈的画面令人想起尚雷诺的父亲印象派雷诺瓦画中的光景。树叶下的点点光影却不再是富贵人家的欢聚,而充满不同阶级之间存在的紧张、友谊与相互学习。日后尚雷诺《游戏规则》(La Règle du jeu, 1939)作品中,则在一片凄迷的树林中呈现贵族奢华的聚猎,猎物全数中弹,中产阶级的荒谬世界一览无遗,像似透过童年同伴的眼光。
瑞典导演英玛柏格曼(Ingmar Bergman,1918-2007)自称是大教堂的工匠,导出六十多部直指人心的影片,其中柏格曼的影片《野草莓》(Smultronstället, 1957)或属〈童年杀人事件〉的回响。《野草莓》男主角晚年获颁医学成就勋帽,前往领奖的路途中脑中的想念却都是年轻时的蠢事与罪感,而年轻女孩摘著野草莓,对他热情地说话模样却挥之不去。这样的热情之火在〈童年杀人事件〉影片中变成了刚出生的妹妹的啼哭声。小小柏格曼斯文、懂事,最终决定拿起枕头往下一按,因为妹妹抢夺父母的爱。剧情结构与影像铺陈深具柏格曼影片之风:最后哭声终究短暂消失…

幻想与勇气
〈魅夜〉中童年的希区考克(Alfred Hitchcock, 1899-1980)是个胆怯人物,让人很难联想起拿著烟斗,斜著眼看著观众巨大而幽默的形像。童年住在英国的他敏感、崇拜剧团女主角,畏惧母亲严格的家规;他怕黑,活脱像极自己剧中在楼梯狂奔的演员。场景的营造让人想起一幕幕希区考克的惊悚形式,而严厉的母亲似乎在他的影片中缺席,温柔美女一个个跳出他的相簿上场。
〈少年的凝视〉诉说的是奥森威尔斯(Orson Welles, 1915-1985)的坚持与勇气。他从小爱演戏,朗朗上口的他让我们想及《大国民》(Citizen Kane,1941)中报业大王的口才与表演才情的出处。此外,他在重病母亲的床前守候,不离开半步,小小年纪的坚持与勇气令人动容…

小孩子喜欢穿大鞋,摇来晃去想和大人一般高;年纪日长的人们往往喜欢端望小孩子的微笑,想和纯真童心一起悠游。穿越导演的童年,再欣赏大师的作品,在交错中品味其趣…每个人可找到与自己同调或是不同调的欣喜与惊奇。

-----------------------------------------------------
导演一览表
佛列兹朗【门后的秘密】Yann Le Gal
大地【拜托开门噢】Joana Hadjithomas & Khalil
尚雷诺【秘密基地和旧皮鞋】Ismaël Ferroukhiao
柏格曼【童年杀人事件】Safy Nebbou
希区考克【魅夜】Corinne Garfin
威尔斯【少年的凝视】Isild Le Besco
------------------------------------------------------
延伸观影【六位电影大师陪你跨年】就在国家资料馆
2008年12月23日-2008年1月13日
------------------------------------------------------

【人籁论辨月刊第56期,2009年1月】

附加的多媒体:
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Wednesday, 31 December 2008 06:27

地球的盐

石油涨价以前,似乎让人觉得它取用不尽,感觉不到它不存在的一天。那么,我们天天习以为常的盐呢?

盐、空气和水是地球上三个最丰富的自然资源。每一样对生命都非常重要。这三样自由让人们取用,但取用上并不一定免费。
瀑布的水免费地从天上来,在地上化为泉水自由地流,溪流和河流四处广布,自然地集成湖泊和池塘。对于那些住在河流旁,并能够随手汲水的人来说,储水相对容易。但是,如果必要开挖水道灌溉、建造沟渠或是埋设水管,水的费用却开始上升,更不用说今日在污水控制与净化上的额外开销。海水淡化更是昂贵。
在人类爬向高海拔与下降到深海以前,呼吸不需要任何花费。如今,净化污染空气的费用却是节节上升。
盐在历史上出现一个重要的转折,对于大多数觉得它无关紧要的人变成非常昂贵的商品。盐对于治疗、血液平衡以及消化等等非常重要。不管哪一种脊椎动物,一公升血液中存在九公克盐。若要不冰冻地保存的食物,盐不可或缺。盐的最大问题,就是它尚未人人可及;对于需要盐的人,拥有盐的人或是制造盐的人能够独占。在历史早期,政府垄断盐的来源;为了卖盐,甚至必须增加税收。盐甚至被当成货币,英文salary(薪水)这个字词从拉丁文而来,盐被当成士兵收入的一部份,而且需要配给。大家为了保有盐或是获取盐开战,甚至为了推翻强收食盐税的政府爆发革命。
食盐税被取消,政府不再垄断,多元使得价格下降。2002年,处理一吨盐的热加工是120美元,卤水蒸发处理是6美元。在制造塑料与工业工程的制造过程中,盐的使用带来莫大利润。举个例子来说,在加州生产盐是数十亿美元的商机。
盐真是取用不尽,这本是谈石油与媒炭所说的用词。现在这个时刻真盼望这是真的。

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Wednesday, 31 December 2008 06:21

掏空

内在与外在之间的停格,请欣赏笨笃的诗作,

诗作 笨笃

-1-
La cérémonie
La cérémonie du thé
S’épuise avec cette goutte.
Toi, dehors, près de la route,
Tu mets l’eau sur le brasier.

典礼

茶的典礼,
一滴一滴被饮尽。
你在外界在路旁。
拿水浇在炭火上。

-2-
Encagé
Dans la cage : un canari.
Bloqué dans la gorge : un cri.
Dans la nasse : un poisson pris.
Dans mon corps : mon c镢ur dépris.

掏空

笼子中,一只金丝雀。
喉咙中,哽住一声啼。
鱼篓中,一只鱼被抓。
肉身中,我心被掏空。

-3-
Sortir
Hors du creux d’où jaillit l’eau
Qui dit le son de l’écho ?
Hors du gosier de l’oiseau
Qui du chant crierait le mot ?

外界

空孔涌出的清泉,
谁说出回音的声源?
鸟儿喉咙的外界,
谁从歌声呐喊字句?

-4-
Feu d’artifice
Perdu parmi le corps de signes,
Resterai-je en ce tourbillon,
Ou rentrerai-je en l’embryon
Qui ourdit l’explosion des lignes ?

烟火

迷失在身体的信号,
我将停留在漩涡中,
或是重回胚胎?
谁策划线条的爆发?

附加的多媒体:
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Wednesday, 31 December 2008 06:19

夜雪使我清醒

冬天的初雪不断重来,没日没夜地下著,使时间归零。

笨笃 撰文

夜色升起,明火同暗火升起,使我目盲,寻找希望的底色,却没有任何东西留著白天的幽深:颤抖的呼唤,隐约传来的歌曲,门口以及窗口粉色、灰色、减了一分黑的边框…如果您愿意的话,爱上这样的等待吧!
我的大窗,窗口赤裸,我看见夜的亮饰。耀目的冬天为夜的小火添加柴木,我的视野一片乾涸。我小心翼翼地转过眼。谈论无形的世界。或者,谈些肉眼无法见到的事物。至少,谈我们此刻看不到的。听说大海近在咫尺,我从未发现这只是一种气味。哀悼海,哀悼礼仪,我是否要声嘶力竭?
钢和海湾发出同样的弧光,同是蓝光,不同属性的使者。两者的双曲线达到顶点时,本源增强著心志。我接受了预兆,我是被画出的空间,或说是念头。反覆的变奏凝聚物质,或说是想法,直到终点。至少这是钢和海湾的闪烁长光确实诉说著的。
雪覆盖我全身,清柔而寒冷。同样凛冽而白色的天空在我上方。地平线荒芜一片,散文诗低语起来,难以停息,沟壑满溢。雪面下的漩涡和记忆重新搅动。银河系的腹心被吸卷抽乾。
斜坡和地洞倾斜,垂直度被啃蚀,毫不宽容地曲身。生硬的黑,乌鸦贪婪地张口…雪总是下个不停。雪在夜间回归,高高低低停息在我纯净的曲线上。雪使我窒息,燃烧著我。冬天的初雪不断重来,没日没夜地下著,使时间归零,使时钟的指针倒转。夜雪使我清醒。

附加的多媒体:
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Wednesday, 31 December 2008 05:42

夜雪使我清醒

冬天的初雪不斷重來,沒日沒夜地下著,使時間歸零。

笨篤 撰文

夜色升起,明火同暗火升起,使我目盲,尋找希望的底色,卻沒有任何東西留著白天的幽深:顫抖的呼喚,隱約傳來的歌曲,門口以及窗口粉色、灰色、減了一分黑的邊框…如果您願意的話,愛上這樣的等待吧!
我的大窗,窗口赤裸,我看見夜的亮飾。耀目的冬天為夜的小火添加柴木,我的視野一片乾涸。我小心翼翼地轉過眼。談論無形的世界。或者,談些肉眼無法見到的事物。至少,談我們此刻看不到的。聽說大海近在咫尺,我從未發現這只是一種氣味。哀悼海,哀悼禮儀,我是否要聲嘶力竭?
鋼和海灣發出同樣的弧光,同是藍光,不同屬性的使者。兩者的雙曲線達到頂點時,本源增強著心志。我接受了預兆,我是被畫出的空間,或說是念頭。反覆的變奏凝聚物質,或說是想法,直到終點。至少這是鋼和海灣的閃爍長光確實訴說著的。
雪覆蓋我全身,清柔而寒冷。同樣凜冽而白色的天空在我上方。地平線荒蕪一片,散文詩低語起來,難以停息,溝壑滿溢。雪面下的漩渦和記憶重新攪動。銀河系的腹心被吸捲抽乾。
斜坡和地洞傾斜,垂直度被啃蝕,毫不寬容地曲身。生硬的黑,烏鴉貪婪地張口…雪總是下個不停。雪在夜間回歸,高高低低停息在我純淨的曲線上。雪使我窒息,燃燒著我。冬天的初雪不斷重來,沒日沒夜地下著,使時間歸零,使時鐘的指針倒轉。夜雪使我清醒。



Tuesday, 30 December 2008 19:57

I am from Mars, you are from Venus

As a student in communication in Taiwan and, moreover, as being part of an international program, I have come to face several times issues of cross-cultural communication, both theoretically and practically. Actually, I am confronted everyday with such issues when I have, for instance, to collaborate with Taiwanese classmates in order to prepare a homework or a presentation for our class. Working with people from another culture, with different codes and sensibilities, has always proven to be very enriching for me, and, to my knowledge, neither me nor my partners have ever encountered any particular difficulty in the completion of any project.

So everything in my past experience of working with people from a different culture had been quite simple and easy to deal with, until the day when I decided to take a class in cross-cultural communication. Then, everything suddenly became complicated: I was taught that Westerners and Asian people had different mindsets, and that they dealt with emotions, conflicts, and more generally with human relationships in completely different ways. To say it in a few words, these classes gave me the impression that I came from Mars, while Asian people came from Venus.

Cross-cultural communication is a relatively young era of scholarship, but it has had a deep influence in the field of organization studies during the last twenty-five years. The main goal of this discipline is to provide international decision-makers tools that can help them dealing with cultural differences inside their organizations: a manager might for instance find here a few recipes that will help him avoiding conflict with his employees, while a businessman will learn there a few tricks in order to gain the confidence of his business partners, avoiding awkward behaviors that might shock or offend them. But might they have some practical value, cross-cultural communication theories are often, in my opinion, over-simplifying.

Take for instance Geert Hofstede’s Culture Consequences (1980), the book that pioneered the field and that has been constantly referred to until today. In this work, Hofstede isolates a series “cultural dimensions”, namely: individualism vs. collectivism, low vs. high power distance, masculinity vs. feminity, and uncertainty avoidance, to refer to the four most famous categories that he created. Then, using statistical data from different countries, Hofstede gives scores to different countries on these dimensions: say, for instance, that the US will get 91 points on the individualism scale, while France will score 71, and Taiwan 17. Such scores might have a practical utility, in that they allow predicting to a certain extent the behavior of people: Americans in general are expected to behave in a more individualistic way than Taiwanese.

However, the mere idea of placing national cultures on numeric scales is, in my opinion, a dangerous process of over-simplification, and that for two reasons. First, cultures are prone to change with time: Asian people are not collectivistic by nature, and social changes as well as personal enrichment produce more and more individualistic behaviors in Asian societies. Second, there is no national basis for culture: in multi-cultural countries such as France, where people from Western Europe, Africa or Asia live together, how can you possibly give a description of the behavior or the mental set of a “typical Frenchman”, since it is precisely the coexistence of different cultures that makes the particular identity of this country? By attaching measures, numbers and scales to different cultures, there is a risk of radicalizing their differences and making such differences appear as insurmountable.

Ironically, the original objective of Hofstede when he started his research on cultural dimensions was to help people better communicate by understanding their differences. However, the dimensions discovered by Hofstede have been simplified over time to such an extent that they do now convey the most simple clichés and stereotypes about cultures. A practical experience of working with people from different cultural backgrounds shows on the other hand that, even when some codes of communication are not shared between collaborators, the willingness to communicate and the existence of common goals are, more than the acknowledgement of essential differences between cultures, efficient ways of overcoming these differences and gaining deeper understanding of the Other.

(Painting by Bendu)
_____________________________________________
Benoit B. interviewed Kouchouching, a Taiwanese hip-hop band:

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