Erenlai - Items filtered by date: Friday, 28 September 2012
Friday, 28 September 2012 17:59

「鮪」機總動員

─鮪魚經濟如何永續發展?

肉質肥美的鮪魚,可高貴可平價,是當代最受人們喜愛的海鮮食材之一。

然而,任何資源取用體系的浩劫,往往伴隨著人類的口腹之慾而生。

當這世界的漁撈活動已充滿風險,我們願意承受多大的代價,來換取一口鮪魚風味?

 

「媽咪,為什麼魚罐頭上要貼海豚貼紙?海豚也吃鮪魚嗎?」「海豚跟我們一樣也吃鮪魚,這個貼紙是鮪魚罐頭公司告訴我們,漁船在抓鮪魚的時候會很小心,不會傷害海豚。」「那海龜呢?那尼莫(Nemo)呢?漁船也會小心不傷害海龜和尼莫嗎?」

很遺憾地,海豚友善標籤不代表船公司所使用的就是對環境友善或永續的撈捕方式。海洋紀錄片《魚線的盡頭》(The End of the Line, 2009)的作者克洛佛(Charles Clover)就明確指出:基本上,我們在動畫電影《海底總動員》(Finding Nemo, 2003)裡看見的所有海洋生物,都可能因捕撈鮪魚而枉送性命。

為什麼呢?因為捕撈鮪魚的圍網漁船,經常使用人工集魚器(fish aggregation device)來增加捕魚的效率。

 

高效或濫捕僅一線間

人工集魚器可泛指漂浮在海上,用來吸引魚類聚集的漂浮物。由於在開放水域中缺乏明顯的遮蔽物,這類漂浮物能吸引魚群的注意;而小魚聚集後又能引來掠食性的鮪魚、鯊魚,因此成為捕撈鮪魚的工業化圍網漁船經常使用的工具。隨著科技進步,許多人工集魚器甚至配有衛星定位,使漁船能輕易掌握魚蹤。

 

然而,使用人工集魚器往往使得目標魚種之外的生物也混雜在漁穫中。一項2005年的研究指出,使用人工集魚器一年將產生十萬噸混獲。平均來說,在使用人工集魚器的情況下,每十公斤的漁穫就會有一公斤屬於非目標物種,包括鮪魚幼魚、海龜、鯊魚、蝠魟和其他物種。

圍網漁法不具篩選性,混獲比率高,也經常同時捕捉高價值且面臨生存風險的鮪魚種類,使得幼魚來不及成長就不幸喪命,嚴重破壞鮪魚族群數量。夏威夷大學對於掠食魚種的研究計畫發現,圍網漁船使用人工集魚器是導致黃鰭鮪和大目鮪族群下降的主因;這不只破壞鮪魚生態,同時也降低了高經濟價值魚種可能帶來的收益。

 

鮪魚罐頭都不鮪魚了

混獲除了威脅海洋環境,也為消費者「食」的安全帶來問號。一般人可能很難想像,超市買的鮪魚罐頭可能混有海豚或海龜。但這絕非危言聳聽,也不是科幻片裡的混種實驗情節。圍網捕獲的鮪魚有很大比例被製成罐頭,混獲以及後續加工製程若未妥善處理,產品就會有成分不明的疑慮。

2010年綠色和平組織(Greenpeace International)曾進行大規模的鮪魚罐頭基因檢測。該次檢測的樣品來自英、美、紐、澳及歐盟等12個國家,共計50個品牌、超過165種產品。結果發現有高達六成標示不符、產品品質不一,以及內容物不明的狀況。但依歐盟對於鰹鮪罐頭的規定,同一罐頭內不得混合不同物種,而商品標示也不得誤導消費者。如今,因為前端的捕撈作業過度追求效率,已使得後端的食品規定形同虛設。

全球鮪魚罐頭年產值高達27億美金,其中美國和英國是兩個最大的消費國。在環境組織的敦促下,2012年間兩國已有數家大型超市品牌宣布不再使用以圍網漁船和人工集魚器所捕獲的鮪魚產品,並支持一支釣或繩釣等對環境較為友善的漁法。

據統計,有79%的歐洲消費者認為「海鮮對環境的衝擊」是影響購買的重要考量。除了英國和美國,加拿大、澳洲、紐西蘭與義大利等鮪魚罐頭的主要市場也都正在轉變。零售商紛紛承諾改變採購政策,停止使用破壞性漁法所捕撈的鮪魚,要求供應商改採永續漁法。

fish02

許多國際環境組織(包括綠色和平在內),近年以監測鮪魚製品來向漁撈產業製造壓力,已略有小成。

限制大漁才能保障小漁

漁業能否永續,作業方式與規模的限制至為關鍵。綠色和平各地辦公室在兩年前開始與沿近海小規模漁民接觸,瞭解這些漁民在作業時所遇到的瓶頸。

在英國,有77%的漁船是身長10公尺以下的小漁船,但這些漁民依法只能捕撈歐盟分配給英國配額的4%。綠色和平英國辦公室於是與漁民一起參加歐盟的政治會議,遊說官員,讓小規模漁民生計成為修法上的考量。自從英國辦公室率先打出「做漁民的朋友」的口號,西班牙、非洲與其他國家也陸續跟進。

在西非的塞內加爾,外國拖網船隊幾近耗盡了該國豐饒的海岸資源,使得在地漁民叫苦連天。簡單來說,拖網就像一年在農地上犁過七次。拖網漁船的存在,使得傳統小規模漁民在海上苦候不到魚兒入網。魚類水產除了是沿岸國家人民的重要營養來源,人工密集的小規模漁業還能造福數十萬就業人口。但過去幾年塞國合法與非法的漁業共同掏空了海洋漁穫,嚴重打擊沿岸漁村生存。

2012年塞國舉行總統大選,「阻止漁穫減少和確保漁業就業安全」成為候選人薩爾(Macky Sall)的重要政見。在四月成功當選後,蕯爾實現承諾,取消了29艘外國拖網船的作業執照。現在,賽國海岸每月能有3,000噸的漁穫,偶而還有過去不常見到的大型魚。當地婦女黝黑的臉上露出靦腆的笑容:「我們的漁民終於有希望了!現在我們能餵飽家人,也讓孩子們可以上學。」

 

紐芬蘭漁場崩潰難復返

回頭看看太平洋。這裡是全球最重要也是最後一處漁源勉強稱得上豐沛的大洋漁場,提供了全世界一半以上的鮪魚。然而,目前在中西太平洋所撈捕的四種鮪魚──正鰹、長鰭鮪、黃鰭鮪與大目鮪──全部面臨過度捕撈的威脅。鮪魚從八○年代後成為全球第二重要的經濟漁種,漁獲量從五○年代的50萬噸一路攀升到2002年的410萬噸,其中超過八成是被全球前七大遠洋漁業強權國所捕獲。

科學家早已警告,物種消失往往並非線性發生,族群數量一旦低過某個未知的臨界點,就可能再也一去不回。過去15年之間,中西太平洋的大目鮪和黃鰭鮪皆已減少20%以上。如今,太平洋的鮪魚數量可能在任何時間點上全面崩盤。

此等悲劇,歷史上早有先例。加拿大的紐芬蘭(Newfoundland)曾是重要的鱈魚漁場,但如今只能從歷史資料想像當年滿載的盛況。五○年代起由於捕撈技術的進步,紐芬蘭鱈魚的捕撈量快速增加,並在六○年代末期創下年穫量80萬噸的高峰。然而,因外國船隊過度捕撈,七○年代紐芬蘭漁穫量已減少六成以上;到了八○年代,更多大型船隊使用先進的技術,持續捕撈為數已不多的魚群。

當時科學家已提出警告,沿岸漁民也觀察到漁穫量大不如前,加拿大政府卻未提出具體規範。結果,1992年加拿大北鱈漁穫量創下歷史新低,才促使加拿大首相宣布全面禁止捕魚兩年。四萬人的漁村小鎮頓時大量失業,沒了工作的漁民被迫舉家搬遷,往日繁榮的漁港城鎮成了無人的鬼城。誰也沒想到,世代維生的鱈魚經濟竟一夕崩潰。直至今日,紐芬蘭漁場的鱈魚數量仍未恢復。

fish03

塞內加爾政府以鐵腕排除外資大型船隊,讓傳統漁法和本國小漁民得以再現生機。

 

太平洋島民不敵大船隊

太平洋島民幾千年來都以傳統、永續的方式捕魚。但今日外國遠洋船隊紛紛進入,還有許多外資成立、懸掛島國國旗的權宜船,以工業化的方式捕走了太平洋超過九成的漁穫量。根據統計,太平洋13個小島國的漁撈量,僅占中西太平洋地區漁穫量的2.3%。

超大型遠洋圍網船隊的設備非常先進,除了聲納,還有水溫探測儀、微生物分布圖等各種高科技工具幫助漁船掌握魚蹤。圍網漁船一次下網就能圍出60個足球場大小的面積,網具深度則相當於三座摩天輪的高度。

大型圍網工業化的捕撈方式極有效率,一下網,大小魚全都一網打盡。一艘大型圍網漁船每季約可捕到11,000噸漁穫,一年的捕撈量足以供給15萬臺灣人一年食用的海鮮。相較之下,太平洋紐埃島(Niue)傳統的鋁製小船和獨木舟,2003年統計的年度鮪魚漁穫僅有100噸,超級圍網漁船只消兩天的作業時間就可輕易超越。

不難想像,只有傳統魚具的小船將會越來越難生存。當遠洋漁業強權紛紛將目標對準太平洋,以設備精良的船隊競逐有限漁穫,小型漁船註定是這場掠奪之戰的輸家。

 

臺灣小漁民也面臨困境

去年十月,我在正式成為綠色和平組織的一員之前,曾以翻譯志工的身分登上綠色和平的船艦「希望號」(Esperanza)。在太平洋上航行的幾個禮拜之中,我們遇見來自臺灣、中國和日本的延繩釣漁船,以及菲律賓的圍網漁船;結果發現,不分國籍,船長跟漁工都提到魚越來越少、越來越難生活的困境。

我曾在一艘延繩釣漁船上看漁船收線,一個多小時均無所獲,有時拉上來連釣勾上的魚餌都還在,使得船長嘆氣連連。以臺灣來說,一艘小釣船得花將近一個月時間才能抵達太平洋,但在無盡汪洋上拚收穫,卻越來越像在豪賭一手永遠不會到來的運氣,幾乎連漁工的薪水都快發不出來。隨著投入的大型船隊日增,傳統、小規模的漁撈成為漁場競爭下的受害者。

綠色和平臺灣辦公室今年訪問了臺灣五十位以捕撈鮪魚為主的沿近海漁民。綠島家計型的小釣船漁民說:「三十年前出去一趟大概可以捕三百多公斤,現在大概二、三十公斤而已。」小琉球延繩釣漁民也表示再也抓不到過去習以為常的大隻鮪魚:「過去兩三百公斤的鮪魚不少,有時還可以捕到四、五百公斤的,但是這兩、三年已經完全捕不到那麼大尾的了。」

每年五至七月是屏東東港著名的黑鮪魚觀光文化季。十三年前曾有單年一萬一千多尾的捕獲量;到了今年卻只剩不到五百尾。過去東港漁市場在黑鮪季時可謂萬人鑽動;但今年卻曾經一天只見著五隻黑鮪魚,現場冷冷清清,盛況已不復見。

 

有規模就該負責任

全球鮪魚業正面臨巨大的轉變,為了回應越來越多消費者對於永續海鮮的需求,許多供應商和超市積極轉換他們的供應產鏈。臺灣雖不是主要的鮪魚消費市場,但在全球的鮪魚貿易上卻占有不容忽視的一席之地,捕撈量僅次於日本,高居世界第二,是全球主要的鮪魚供應地。

在中西太平洋地區,臺灣資本擁超過1700艘漁船,所占比例高達整個區域的三分之一。因此,雖然臺灣經常只能以觀察員身分參與國際組織會議,但在一些跨國性的區域漁業管理組織──例如中西太平洋漁業管理委員會──卻是正式會員。

市場正在改變,問題不在於誰是下一個改變的對象,而是太晚回應就會被潮流淘汰。鮪魚產業對臺灣漁業至為關鍵,臺灣政府應積極面對過度捕撈,回應國際潮流;並主動規畫永續漁業方案,讓漁民有工作保證,也讓未來的子孫都能年年有魚。

 

照片提供|綠色和平

撰文│顏寧 (2011年以翻譯志工身分隨綠色和平「希望號」進行守護太平洋之旅;2012年加入綠色和平臺北辦公室,現職為海洋專案主任。)

 

圖01 攝影/Ian Willms, ©Greenpeace

圖02 攝影/Kristian Buus, ©Greenpeace

圖03 攝影/Clément Tardif, ©Greenpeace

 

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十月─南島紀行 台灣青年的踏查與省思

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Friday, 28 September 2012 17:24

洗出內在的真實:《羅馬浴場》

「現實」向來不是中性詞,它意味著妥協與限制;

人人都想逃離,但始終沒有勇氣。

遁入另一時空,你就能擺脫身上的種種束縛,獲得全然的自由與真實?

或者,你所以為的現實,原來不過是自己難以正視的怯懦與不足?

 

 

片名∣《羅馬浴場》(Thermae Romae)
導演∣武內英樹
出品年份∣2012
上映時間∣2012年08月(傳影互動)

Friday, 28 September 2012 15:26

The Sweet Burdens of Wu Sheng and Wu Zulin


Father Versus Son, A Revision of the Old Classics

The Taiwanese use the phrase “sweet burden” (tian mi de fu he 甜蜜的負荷) to describe the ambivalent relationship between parent and child. The phrase derived from poet Wu Sheng’s(吳晟) poem “Burden” (fu he負荷). The immense popularity of the poem can be partially attributed to its inclusion as Chinese literature textbook material, even more so perhaps becauseof its colloquial and vivid description of the bittersweet parenting experience that resonates with so many people. “Burden” was written in 1977, that was when Wu Sheng first tried hishand at parenting. Nobody expected that 30 years later, he would join forces with his second son Wu Zu-lin (吳志寧) to give “Burden” as well as his other poems a new life.


Published in Focus: Poetry and Song
Friday, 28 September 2012 11:56

Aboriginal Literature Inside Out

In this video, I discuss my views on Taiwanese aboriginal literature, my encounters with famous aboriginal writers Topas Tamapima and Monaneng, and the place indigenous literature occupies in the Pacific and the world.

From an academic point of view, many aspects of Taiwan have already been studied all around the world. Aboriginal issues are really suffering from a severe lack of recognition in Western countries, even if some other specialists like Scott Simon are emerging, they depart only from an anthropological and political starting point. I’m probably one of the very few western researchers who work in this field through written literature, and I think it really represents a great value for our knowledge of this field. It’s also a way to ensure that all the work which have been already been put in by researchers like Elizabeth Zeitoun, Josiane Cauquelin or Véronique Arnaud will be continued.
 

Readers in Mainland China can watch it on youku here

Written version of the interview

Can you tell us about your academic background?

So, between 1999 and 2005, I read Chinese Studies at the University of Provence in France and I lived in Taiwan for two years, between 2001 and 2003. Then I did a Masters degree for which I wrote a dissertation about the contemporary written literature of Taiwanese Aborigines. In 2010, I decided to continue my research in this field by starting a PHD thesis in the same university, under the direction of Noël Dutrait who has supervised me since the beginning of my studies.

What was the subject of your Masters dissertation?

Despite the fact that there were already some indigenous writers like Gao Yisheng or BaLiwakes, who were mainly songwriters under the Japanese colonization, a true indigenous written literature in Mandarin had started to appear around the lifting of the martial law at the end of the 80’s. In 2003, an anthology devoted to indigenous writing was published. It brought together the most representative indigenous writers of Taiwan and their work, consisting of 7 volumes which were structured around the three major literary genres that are novels, poems and essays. These texts often took the form of original fiction, traditional myths and legends or a mixture of the two. The dissertation I wrote for my Master degree was a work of synthesis about all these writers and their texts. I also translated four novels written by Topas Tamapima, the first indigenous writer of the post martial law generation. I interviewed him for the first time at the end of 2003 in his dispensary in the county of Taitung. At this time, I also met Sun Dachuan, the current minister of Aboriginal Affairs, who helped me a lot.

What are you going to discuss in more detail in your PHD thesis?

A lot of research has already been done in this field in Taiwan. But there is almost nothing in western countries, except a few works in English by scholars like Terence Russel, Darryl Sterk and John Balcom. However, most of the works in English I’ve read are just translations and don’t really analyze the contents of indigenous literature.

By attending some conferences in Western countries about Taiwan, I realized that most of people were mainly interested in the substance of these texts. So I’ve decided to shed light on the viewpoint that was expressed by all these writers in their background and their texts. This is the first part of my dissertation which tries to summarize the background and the major texts of the 33 indigenous writers who are officially identified in Taiwan by the online data base of the Mountains and Seas Publication Society. By “viewpoint“ I mean the perception of the world around them. In the second part of my dissertation, I try to compare this viewpoint with the viewpoint that is expressed through the literary and sociological reception of this indigenous literature in Taiwan.

The final part of my thesis is an annotated translation in French of the last collection of short stories written by Topas Tamapima and which were published in 1998. Its name is Memories of a doctor on the Orchids Island and it retraces the experience of the author as a doctor on Orchids Island at the end of the 80’s. This translation helps to analyze the “viewpoint” of an indigenous writer throughout one of his works. We can see through this translation the mobility of the author’s viewpoint because in those short stories, Topas always seems to be caught between his professional status as a doctor, whose field is Chinese medicine, which was originally foreign to the indigenous people, and some collective reminiscences which constantly remind him as to the defense of all the Aborigines against Han society. So, the aim of my research is to see what arises from the meeting of this multiplicity of different viewpoints.

During your research, you met the two famous indigenous writers - Topas Tamapima and Monaneng. Can you tell us more about those meetings?

The first time I met Topas was at the end of 2003. At this time, I still was a Masters student and I was already writing a dissertation about the indigenous writers of Taiwan, which focused especially on the works of Topas Tamapima. The meeting was very fun and friendly; It was at his dispensary, Changpin, on the southeast coast of Taiwan in the county of Taitung. I asked him some questions about his background, his childhood, about some novels he wrote and which I had translated into French for my Masters degree dissertation. The second time I met him was in 2011, it was still at his dispensary. He didn’t remember our first meeting. It was a bit frustrating for me. I interviewed and filmed him for an hour. We had a deep discussion about everything, indigenous literature, what he thought about the current state of aborigines in Taiwanese society, his political viewpoint and his experience as a doctor on the Orchids Island amongst other things.

The meeting with Monaneng was a few weeks later in his massage room in Taipei. We talked about his background and his writing too. In front of my camera, he read one of his most famous poems. Its name is ‘When the bells start to ring’ and it talks about young indigenous women who become prostitutes. The meeting with him was really touching.

Is the Pacific represented in Topas and Monaneng's writings? How?

To me, the Pacific is absolutely not at the heart of their writings. Their writings were born around the lifting of the martial law and I think Topas and Monaneng were particularly concerned about the plight of the indigenous people. They mainly criticize the clash between indigenous cultures and modern civilization which was imported by the Han people. They don’t talk about the Pacific, maybe indirectly like in Memories of a doctor on Orchids Island in which Topas describes the ocean culture of the Tao and the sea which surrounds Orchid Island.

Do you think that TW aboriginal literature fits into the TW literature ? And into the idea of the common Pacific literature?

When the true indigenous literature in mandarin started to appear around the lifting of martial law, I mean with regular and homogeneous publications, not like the works of some indigenous writers like Lifok O’Teng or Kowan Tallal which were very underground, quite sporadic and isolated before the 80’s, at the beginning this true indigenous written literature was just another symptom of an identity and a cultural crisis among Taiwan Aborigines. I mean, although the idea of writing novels or poems as an indigenous writer was also promoted by some Han writers and intellectuals, the first indigenous texts in mandarin were just a global reaction to the critical situation of Taiwan Aborigines. But during the 90’s, it’s true that this literature began to be institutionalized with the creation of some specific literary prices which were also organized by the Council of Indigenous Affairs in Taiwan. From that moment on, this literature began to be indirectly instrumentalized by public authorities,for example, if you analyze the posters which promote these literary prices, you can realize that one of their goals is to increase the diversity of Taiwanese literature. So, at the beginning, indigenous literature didn’t belong to Taiwanese literature, but it has been progressively included in it as another aspect of the literature of the island.

It’s difficult to say if Taiwanese indigenous literature fits into the idea of a common Pacific literature. Of course, some writers like Syaman Rapongan describe the Pacific. But I think, I mean, as far as I have progressed in my research, I think that Taiwanese indigenous literature belongs more to a “world indigenous literature” rather than to a “Pacific literature”. You know, even if the contexts are very different, the content is very similar in the writing, for example, some Native American writers or some Australian indigenous writers also criticize colonization, the destruction of a modern civilization over their original culture, the destitution of their tribe, as well as some social problems they encounter like alcoholism or poverty. I mean, in my opinion, the common point is more social than geographical in what we call the “minorities literatures”.

What is the benefit of your research for the study of Taiwan?

From an academic point of view, many aspects of Taiwan have already been studied all around the world. The Aboriginal issues are really suffering a severe lack of attention in Western countries, even if some specialists like Scott Simon are emerging, he approaches his research from an anthropological and political perspective. I’m probably one of the few western researchers who works in this field through written literature, and I think it is of great value for our knowledge of those issues. It’s also a way to ensure that all the work which have already been done by French researchers like Elizabeth Zeitoun, Josiane Cauquelin or Véronique Arnaud will be continued…

 

 

 

 
 

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