Erenlai - Beacons of hope 亞洲的人文引擎
Beacons of hope 亞洲的人文引擎

Beacons of hope 亞洲的人文引擎

There are many local initiatives that deserve to be known and encouraged. Here we look at Asia's cultural innovation.

在地的人文引擎推動著亞洲的文化發展,這股動力充滿著創新的精神。

 

 

週四, 23 八月 2012

「妙手回春」文物修復特展—從傳統到現代

 
文化部文化資產局於101年6月29日至8月26日在臺北市剝皮寮歷史街區推出「妙手回春—從傳統到現代的文物修復特展」,介紹傳統與現代的文物修復技術,並於展覽期間辦­理三場教育推廣活動。

古早社會因為物資缺乏,老祖先們在「愛物惜物」觀念下,因應食、衣、住、行等生活需求也發展出「補硘仔」、「補鼎」這些傳統修補技藝。現在這些傳統修補技藝逐漸凋零、失傳­,

週四, 14 七月 2011

陽光中的微笑: 守護危機家庭,邀您隋行!

根據衛生署統計報告, 全國計有30,909名人口因口腔癌持續就醫, 年年新增病例5千7百多人,去年死亡人數更高達2370人,等於每1.6小時就有人罹患口腔癌,每4個小時就有一位父親倒下,每周就有42個孩子可能因家中經濟狀況,面臨求學中斷的危機。

 

 

週二, 14 九月 2010

地球牧歌---《從羊圈小村到地球村》的讀后感

一種羊和圈的世界

在互聯網的搜索中,鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈小學是和法國文化年、和歐美國家的人類學聯系在一起的,是和繪畫攝影藝術展覽等聯系在一起的,也和我的藏區同行人梁准聯系在一起的。 在有關數字的記載中,羊圈小學隻有這麼幾項:在白烏鎮的面壩村,職工人數 6人。經營范圍是小學,注冊時間 1999年,校長,沙開元。然而,羊圈小學卻是中國第一個走向地球村的鄉村小學。

--- 作者 周渝霞,四川作家協會會員、詩人

 

《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書則表明羊圈是和地球聯系在一起的,是和作者魏明德先生聯系在一起的。

寫這篇評論的時候,梁准說我有幾個理由應該提筆——一是我是屬於鹽源的人(曾經是那裡的知青,對當地的風土人情頗為了解;二是我對李星星以及魏明德等學者在人類學、社會學方面成就的理解;第三個理由就是和梁准一同跑了幾年藏區,對於一些民族問題有自己的一些看法和見解。

於是我再次捧讀這本書,再次體會魏明德先生的描述,再次品讀那些對我來說既熟悉又陌生的圖片。

鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈村地處閉塞偏遠的小涼山山區,是一個自稱為諾蘇的彝族村落。鹽源是我在70年代上山下鄉的地方,那裡是衛城羅加村,和羊圈村的直線距離為60公裡,車行距離為90公裡 。

最早聽說羊圈,是同在鹽源上山下鄉,現在做人類學研究的李星星告訴我的,他說在那裡和幾個國外的學者友人開辦了一所小學,他還收養了一位干女兒。后來才得知羊圈因為貧窮和交通不便,1999年之前,學齡兒童的入學率不足60%。孩子們渴望讀書的目光刺痛了到羊圈村做調查的法國學者魏明德,美國教授郝瑞等人,讓他們久久無法平靜。於是有了后面的記載:

以下時間記錄了這些年魏明德等人的工作和努力:

  

*1999年,文化的腳步開始走進大山。
在涼山州民族研究所副所長馬爾子的提議下,法國利氏學社學者魏明德(Benoit Vermander )博士、美國華盛頓翻譯片立大學郝瑞(Steven Harrell)教授、中央民族大學教授巴莫阿依博士、四川省民族類研究所李星星研究員、鹽源人大副主席馬維爾聯合發起籌集90多萬人民幣,在涼山州對外友好協會、鹽源縣縣委、縣政府、白烏鎮政府的支持下,為羊圈村修建了羊圈小學。

*2000年秋季落成,小學開始招生。羊圈小學從此在這塊不毛之地上開始了不平凡的旅程。

*2001年,為了讓更多的孩子讀書,這些熱心的人們專門成立了“涼山教育基金會”,為學校提供日常開支,為畢業生發放獎學金。

*2004年——作為中法文化年文化交流活動的一大項目,這些以“四川小王子”為題的系列作品被帶到法國巴黎、圖盧茲、裡昂和波爾多等地巡展,引起了廣泛關注,成為當年文化交流的亮點。為了進一步增進東部地區人們對彝族的了解,推廣羊圈志願活動經驗,羊圈協會和涼山教育促進會將“四川小王子”搬到上海,和最近兩年新產生的作品共同組成了此次“水墨羊圈”上海巡展。

*2005——中國法國文化年-巴黎,成都.涼山-羊圈攝影繪畫作品展。

這年7月羊圈小學第一批六年級畢業生32名,以優級異的成績考上了中學,其中4名考上了涼山州民族中學,10名考上了鹽源縣民族中學,學校建校以來歷時六年,受到了來自法國、美國和成都、台灣等到海內處朋友的關心和幫助,

*2006.01.以羊圈的名義“羊圈烤肉” 在成都開張。就是每一位顧客要多付一塊錢,作為給遠在小涼山深處的鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈村羊圈小學的捐款。

*2006年12月5日,以涼山州鹽源縣彝族山村羊圈村為題材的“水墨羊圈”攝影美術巡展在上海外國語大學隆重開幕。展出近百幅作品,既有羊圈村的彝族兒童從自己視角觀察生活所作的版畫,也有攝影家在當地拍攝的黑白照片。展覽旨在讓參觀者進一步了解西部現狀,從作品中體會少數民族文化的魅力,並宣傳人文關懷意識,呼吁人們關注西部,以此加強國內外志願單位間的聯系與合作。

*2007年,魏明德先生致力於《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書在大陸的出版。

*2008年4月,在上海“可持續發展的文化資源國際研討會”上,《從羊圈小學到地球村》舉行首發儀式,反響強烈。

 

魏明德的羊圈

一種記憶的復活

時間的腳步,從1999年邁到了今天,快過去10年的時間。羊圈的意義也由單一的羊圈,變成了羊圈小學、從羊圈小學走到了地球村。

魏明德先生從遙遠的法國走到羊圈,他以社會學、人類學、政治學的目光審視著這裡的一切,並開始了他長達10年的愛心援助、愛心奉獻的歷程。

魏明德生於北非,后在耶魯大學就讀政治學碩士,法國政治大學就讀哲學博士,現居台灣,任利氏學社主任,其組織編撰的《利氏漢法大詞典》是目前世界上規模最大的漢語—歐語詞典。1987年,魏明德在法國政府部門工作,偶爾的機會到了四川等地。1994年,魏明德對中國國畫產生興趣,便跑到四川師范大學藝術系學習國畫,有機會進入涼山彝族自治州寫生,此后,他每年有4個月時間呆在涼山。

他的寫作計劃從2000年的時候就開始了,而大量的採訪筆記是在2003年完成。他的寫作目的很明確,就是用他的眼光,一個法國人的眼光來看羊圈,並希望這種眼光牽引著更多的人們去關注這個羊圈或者更多的羊圈。

在魏明德看來,對於羊圈的認識最好的方法莫過於和羊圈本身“保持些許距離,以客觀的態度思考一下住在這裡的居民是什麼樣的人?在這一小塊土地上,甚至整個涼山的諾蘇人又是什麼養的民族?”而我們的法國朋友魏明德先生正是使用這種方法,使得我們在篼了一大圈以后,得到了一種答案——我們都驚奇地發現這個生活在中國土地上的少數民族令人大開眼界,讓人見識到他們豐富且久遠的文化。

用一種文化,來客觀地認識另一種完全不同的文化,這不僅僅需要有客觀的方法,需要有持久的恆心,更需要對文化本身的認識與包容。

魏明德先生做到了,接著,許多法國、美國、內地、台灣等地一批又一批的中外學者和志願者不辭辛苦地來到這裡,教授課程,也在某種意義上做到了。然后是自然科學的勘探水利,改良土壤的人們。

人們試圖改變羊圈的落后的同時,也不斷地用自己的文化融入到了這片土地,在客觀地改變人們的觀念的同時,也改變著自己對於這片土地的認識。

然后是更多的人來了 ,他們試圖從更加廣闊的角度去了解民情、考察民風。其實他們的目的都很簡單 ——使羊圈小學順利辦學,使羊圈村發生了巨大變化,變得越來越現代化、國際化,成了彝家名副其實的“地球村”。

這便是羊圈本身的效應。也是魏明德先生和他的同仁們一致追求的目標。

 


 

 014羊圈本身的效應

羊圈小學,隻是認識羊圈人的一個平台,也是一種文化走向多元文化的平台。至於平台本身的意義也許當初魏明德先生他們並沒有過多的考慮。而對於羊圈人來說,卻是開天辟地的事情,創世紀的事情。

在魏明德看來,“每一個人都依照天主所賜的能力行事……如果我們能自始至終、心存善念地認真對待所遇到的這群人,關心他們的住房、食物、教育、醫療、社區發展……我想這種態度更能尊重福音所帶來的精神。”這種精神的感召可以使得人們在完全自由的情況下有更多的發言和見証的機會。

從最初的辦戒毒中心的願望,到全力以赴地創建羊圈小學,魏明德先生都是義無反顧的,展示著他參與地方人道主義發展的欲望。盡管這看起來有很大的難度。他四處募集款項。他成功了,第一筆經費來自於一個西班牙基金會以及位於巴黎的法蘭克林高中,后來的經費多來自台灣和成都的一些個人捐贈者。

辦一個學校對於我們這個社會來說已經不再是很困難的事情 ,關鍵在於堅持下去。魏明德和他的同仁們“不管多麼困難,我們都要堅持下去”。顯然這種決心和后來的許多困難聯系在了一起。

羊圈是志願者的天地,學校成立的第二年,第一批暑期志願者包括來自台灣的兩名護士,學校的學生和四名來自成都的小學教師,為村庄裡的孩子開設免費的暑期課程,包括衛生課、漢語、英語和美術。2002年夏天,志願者增加了另外兩名台灣的醫護人員、兩名中文教師、四名法國學生,以及台灣陶藝師蔡婉湘,她在村民的協助下,仔細尋找當地獨特的黏土種類,漸漸也集合成一個小小的團隊來參與研究制作技術。2004年夏天,幾乎所有的學齡兒童都已經入學,另外有一些學生來自附近的村庄。志願者的隊伍也從醫護人員、老師擴展到水利學家。如今,志願者們還在源源不斷地前往。每年定期前往開展項目,包括教育、衛生、水利、文化遺產保護等多方面,這一切是值得人們欣喜的,當然也是魏明德先生所希望看到的。

幾年來,“羊圈”成為了志願活動的典范,被推廣到世界各地。悠久的彝族文化、豐富獨特的志願項目和原始的自然風光吸引了來自各國的藝術家。他們創作了大量以羊圈為題材的繪畫和攝影藝術品,並引導啟發當地兒童學習美術。他們還舉辦各種展覽,開展各種文化交流活動,以喚起人們的更多的關注與支持。

羊圈小學不再是一所單純的鄉村小學,它已經成為羊圈乃至方圓數十公裡人們生活中的一部分,也成為當地人從純粹的土地上走向外界的一個橋梁,成為為當地諾蘇人與外界朋友互相交流互相學習的平台。許多藝術家深入其中,見証並記錄了跨文化的交流和當地民族教育的發展。

 

羊圈的思考——一種是世界的扶貧模式

 

作為法國的漢學家、詩人、畫家、人類學、國際政治學學者魏明德(Benoit Vermander)博士,在過去的幾年中,為海內外帶來了“法國學者眼中的中國西部視野”,在這本書裡,

魏明德博士以一位法國漢學家眼光,概述了中國少數民族文化現狀、生存狀況。書中客觀而生動的的描述、覆蓋羊圈人現實生活方方面面的大量精彩圖片,使得我們陌生而又真實地看到了一個被重新架構的偏僻彝族小村,真實而具體地感知了羊圈人的生活脈絡。

我們和書中的人一道聽故事、參加勞作、和遠去的生靈對話,我們在翻閱著書頁的同時,更多的是和羊圈人以及魏明德先生進行著關於心靈的交流和探詢。

真的要感謝魏明德先生。正是魏明德先生通過對物質文明的展示,通過羊圈人一代一代的故事,讓我們在死亡與復活中尋找靈魂的道路,也正是通過對於“羊圈項目”的具體介紹,嘗試揭示在中國現背景下,走進現代文明影子裡的傳統族群,看到西部少數民族在全球民族文化世界中的位置。

也正是這些實地挖掘,精力和精神的投入,研究與思考中。魏明德在與李星星、馬爾子研究學者和來自美國的人類學家郝瑞共同參與了羊圈小學的設立中,他們既成為了朋友,又同時也是地方發展的推動者。這種多重的身份使得魏明德先生採取了更加客觀的科學態度。

就這樣,魏明德先生完成了他從西方文化融入東方文化階梯 ,也在攀爬這個階梯的同時向世人闡釋了他為西部少數民族地區發起各種志願活動的人文關懷理念。

對於貧窮的羊圈來說,羊圈人無疑是幸運的。

1999 年,幾乎與世隔絕的小村庄辦起了學校,打開了與世界之間的通道,此后,大量的志願者和國外訪問學者來到這個地方,並逐漸改變了小村的整個輪廓。2000年9月,羊圈小學成立,第一學年,學校計有130多名學生,至2007年9月,學校招收了270名學生。學校每人每學期收取50元注冊費,其余包括考試的費用便由學校包辦。在魏明德看來,並不完全免費的原因是:一項完全免費的服務在受惠者眼中很容易被貶低其重要性,反而會變相激發較多的缺勤率。

再此后,歷時近10年,魏明德完成《從‘羊圈’小村到地球村——涼山彝族的生活與傳說》一書,並經四川民族出版社出版。

2008年4月,魏明德先生在上海舉行的“可持續發展的文化資源國際研討會”上,舉行該書的簡單的首發式(這次研討會由中國人民外交學會和法國巴黎銀行基金會主辦)。

在這次研討會上,魏明德在羊圈村的實踐也是研討會的議題之一,研討會吸引諸多中外學者到場,這本書的現場銷量十分火爆。

“也許我們每一個人都可以尋找和發現自己的羊圈。已經有了一些想法,但願能早日成為現實。”這是一位關注羊圈的文人寫的感受。我想,魏明德先生的這本書的出版,實際上也為我們做了很好的提示:

世界上還有很多的羊圈 ,哪一個羊圈都需要我們去關注,需要我們去扶助。關鍵在與我們的發現羊圈的能力、眼光和持久耐力。

說到耐力,我很佩服魏明德先生,真的是十年磨一劍,他用十年的艱辛和努力,為我們展示了一部羊圈文明發展史。在這個以快餐文化為主打的時代裡,一些文人、學者的浮躁和淺嘗耶止使得地攤上擺滿了人們唾棄的文化垃圾。我們的文人可以高速度地寫作、出版發行,也可以信手拈來重新組合。和魏明德先生的嚴謹寫作風格以及踏踏實實做學問的態度比較起來,我們還真的有點汗顏。

 

藝術扶貧羊圈成了地球村

 

1999年4月,魏明德第一次踏進羊圈,在羊圈村實地考察並作修建小學的准備工作。此后,在他的影響下,越來越多的人去到羊圈村。

這似乎和藝術本身沒有多大的關系。但任何藝術的創造與成功都來自生活本身。當人們把各類關於羊圈本身的攝影圖片和文字聯系在一起的時候,才發現,羊圈本身就是一個最美的藝術品,是活著的還在不斷發展的藝術品。

從2001年至今,不僅僅是魏明德先生,也不僅僅是人類學者和社會學家。每年,來自法國、比利時、美國以及中國台灣等地的專家、學者、藝術家都會走進羊圈。他們帶來的是愛與希望,他們在這裡播洒科學文明和文化藝術的種子。不同國籍、不同文化的碰撞和交流使得羊圈小學的知名度遠遠高於鹽源縣其他小學。

從某種意義上講,藝術家們已經越來越多地關注並參與到羊圈援助項目中,法國學者笨篤(魏明德)的水墨作品和四川師大李金遠教授的油畫作品,以及一系列的攝影作品,為羊圈援助項目的持續發展做了最好的推廣和宣傳,使得羊圈小學——這個由國內外人類學家聯合發起並募集資金建立起來的鄉村小學,受到更多人的關注和扶持,羊圈小村也成為國內外學者田野調查的基地和西部扶貧援助計劃的典范。

對於羊圈來說,藝術帶來了希望,世界在給予關注的同時,引發了一系列的募捐,也帶去了關愛與和平。

對於世界各地的學者(尤其是文化學)來說,羊圈是他們認識中國的基地,他們將目光投向這塊土地,十年間,羊圈小學接待了上百位的國際文化學者及慈善家。而在當地拍攝照片,收集民俗資料,展開自然科學研究,也已經逐漸成為了一個模式。在宣傳當地的同時繼續為小學,小村的發展籌集資金。

對於魏明德先生來說,羊圈得到了某種福音,那是他作為研究學者和文化學者所能夠滿足的最大的心願——“從觀察和採訪的角度去敘述一個諾蘇小村的人們的基本生活、精神寄托和內心期望並以此觸動讀者的情感和心靈;或者說,通過我的敘述,人們可能會真正理解我們這些志願者在這個諾蘇小村所進行的教育、衛生和水利設施等方面的工作的價值和意義,雖然我們的整個援助計劃在許多的方面尚未全面實施。”

盡管如此,我們看到的 還是一個被世界打開的“羊圈”。

 

魏明德的羊圈村生活

 006

十年了,在魏明德眼中,羊圈沒有圈,羊圈村是個沒有廣場,沒有正規街道,沒有店鋪,也沒有專門的祭祀場所的小地方。

在魏明德的採訪中,羊圈人又有自己的圈——他們豐富的神靈和充滿理想的信仰與儀式

使得羊圈人以自己獨有的古老的文化走進了地球村落。

在魏明德的描述中,羊圈人的物質生活簡單到極致。在他們看來:種子撒進地裡,陽光、雨水、土壤和神靈就會掌管一切。土地出產什麼,他們就吃什麼,他們種什麼,也就吃什麼。土豆、玉米和蕎麥是他們的主要食物。從一開始,魏明德就試圖將羊圈變成一個“另類的世界化交流中心”,諾蘇人、成都人、台灣人和法國人等可以聚集在一起並且相互學習。這一夢想很快實現。其實,我們從書中也感覺到魏明德先生的擔憂,這顯然不僅僅是對於一所學校的后續發展和存在擔憂。

在魏明德的書中,學校的建立,對羊圈究竟帶來了怎樣的影響,魏明德希望和讀者一起尋求答案,“應該有正面的東西,也有負面的東西。”他在書中寫到, “我們的原意是為了讓這個地方更富有生命力,但這樣一來是不是更導致村裡所有受過教育的年輕人為尋求工作而遠走他鄉?我們是否打開了潘多拉之盒?”

游走於世界各地的的文明的魏先生顯然也注意到了羊圈小學以及羊圈本身所發生的變化。他尤其感覺到了“羊圈村在劇烈變化之中,也許是我們帶給了他們改變,又也許是中國本身就在改變。”

反思是必要的,尤其是在經歷了十年的風風雨雨之后,作為政治學家的名義的反思尤為深刻: “羊圈的變化,更多在於觀念的變化,他們知道了外面的世界,對金錢有了概念,所以外出打工去尋找更多賺錢的方法。”他們同時非常自卑,他們意識到自己被邊緣化。一個年輕人告訴魏明德:“活在大山裡,人生好痛苦。”而羊圈人的反思則更為強烈,外來的文化和理念對於本土的沖擊,現代文化對傳統文化的沖擊使得這種反思顯得尤為沉重和慘烈。

反思的痛苦程度則是魏明德先生所始料不及的。他作為地方發展的推動者,思考的問題卻遠遠比描述和記錄的困難得多—— 羊圈終究是要被打開的,不是自己就是外力,人們終究要走出羊圈,但“外出本身並無壞處,但是他們終將回家,回家之后,做什麼,這是個問題。”

學校仍將繼續下去,基金會開始行使了自己更加貼切的工作方針——有針對性的進行教育,在課程開設上增加了更加實用性的課程,如為外出打工的年輕人開設了怎樣開設銀行帳戶、寄信、買車票和坐公交車等實用課程。針對留守在村子的村民則開設如何使玉米收成更好的農業知識培訓課程。

“有一天,羊圈裡或許沒有羊,羊圈的小孩或許一個個都會離開家鄉,到他方生活。不過這種種記憶、經驗和所有的計劃終將伴隨著他們前往。更重要的是,他們也會向其他人述說——信息將由此傳遞出去。”魏明德以這一段話作為全書的結尾,顯然是意味深長的,這也許就是魏明德先生對於羊圈本身的最好的注解。

 


 

羊圈的美圖與設計

梁准的笑容

今年春天,也是陽光燦爛的日子,梁准帶給我這本厚厚的書。從它的裝幀設計的獨到,它魅力無窮的黑白色彩以及內容的詳實、圖片的真實度,都給人以驚喜。

“大氣!”記得這是我當時脫口而出的一句話。以我多年經營圖書的經驗,我的直覺告訴我,這是一本資料性豐厚 ,可讀性較強的人文地理叢書,當然也是一本非常好的人類學、社會學的著作。

那一刻,梁准笑了,笑得很燦爛。

感謝梁准,讓我先睹為快。這個常年在艱苦的民族地區奔跑的堅韌女性,以她對少數民族的熱忱和特有的善良,不斷地採集著民族文化的精華,不斷地推廣著民族文化的內涵,不斷地傳遞著民族文化的魅力。她或者在苗寨、或者在羌寨和婦女們聊天,或者在高原、峽谷的藏區拍攝。

這幾年我們一同在康區採風,見証了她工作的瘋狂和眼光的獨到。

在到羊圈的大量的文化人當中,有一位女士是扛著攝影器材去的,並在那裡拍攝了大量的人文圖片,那就是梁准。

梁准用一句簡單話語概括了她對羊圈的感受:“我們打開一扇窗看到了羊圈,羊圈也通過一扇窗看到了外面的世界。”

  

梁准式的拍攝原理

 yangjuan

《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書,讓我再次見識了梁准在拍攝少數民族人物時的獨特眼光與深厚的攝影功底。

收入這本書的圖片,有這樣幾個特點讓人記憶深刻:

首先 是扣准人文主題,准確地把握被攝者的目光和心靈。書中有大量的圖片是人物。心地善良的梁准,也是善解人意的梁准。這使得她能夠細致入微體驗到當地人的生存狀態和心理狀態,從而准確地把握被拍攝者的眼光所表達的內心感受。在“羊圈裡的小學生”一章中,梁准的圖片瞄准了孩子們自然、純真的笑容和天真活潑的本性,從這些孩子身上,看到的不再是一個封閉的彝寨、不再是一個遙遠的山村,而是一種希望、一種向上的感悟;而“病痛纏身”一章村民刻在臉上的苦痛與無奈讓人揪心;從事各種農事勞作的羊圈人的勞動場景,則讓我們聞到了來自土地的氣息;在畢摩深邃的眼裡,我們則讀到了來自遠古文明的痕跡和屬於靈魂的東西。

其次,配圖的准確度。梁准踏實認真,精益求精的工作態度和敬業精神一向為人稱道,攝影師和人文作家的雙重身份,使得她對文字和圖片同樣敏感,為這本書文字與圖片的融為一體打下良好基礎,每段文字都有適當的照片與之相配,並附有高度概括性的圖解說明,文宇與圖片相互補充,相互呼應,相得益彰,圖文的緊密配合,相互交融也成為這本書最吸引人的地方。梁准對細節的拍攝和關注尤其打動我,在拍攝的時候,哪怕是很小的一個細節,她也絕不含糊。從書中的圖片中,我們能感受到這種魅力無處不在。

那一幅牽手的圖片,一隻白皮膚的外來者的手,一隻黃皮膚的羊圈人的手,不同膚色的手的相牽,世界就變得如此之小,不就是手和手的距離麼,當我們的手握在一起的時候,世界便沒有距離,羊圈不再是單獨的羊圈,而是世界的羊圈,是地球村的羊圈。這就是梁准的圖片所要表達和傳遞的的理念。還有濃縮諾蘇女人一生的那雙手,簡直讓人觸目驚心,難以忘記。

在扉頁上那幅一個人一匹馬、一片地、一片天的小圖片中,似乎在牽引著我們從地球走向羊圈。而在目錄之后的放大的圖片中,那人、那天、那地、那馬都給了我們更多的刺激與感受。如果說魏明德先生的簡歷和誘人的目錄使得我們有了閱讀的欲望,那這幅圖片給我們的感覺就不僅僅是欲望本身,而是要去實現這欲望,如同梁准走進羊圈一樣,我們在接受行前的叮嚀——這裡沒有浪漫與悠閑,隻有蒼涼與悠遠,隻有高天與厚土,有走進羊圈的人,也有羊圈走出的人……

那個趴在牆上遠望的孩子,是在羊圈土生土長的孩子,他頭上戴的耐克帽子也許是來自外國老師的贈與,他趴在羊圈的牆上,但他眺望的卻是羊圈以外的地方或者更遠的地方,也許他的未來就如那棵白楊樹,那是鹽源獨有的鑽天楊,可以長得很高,直到天上,也可以覆蓋很寬,直到地球以遠。這便是我理解的隱藏在前言圖片中的深刻含義。

第三,也就是梁准特色——激情。我們在書中圖片裡讀到並感受到了許多激情,那是屬於梁准的特有的激情,可以打動和感染無數人的激情。可以想像,在羊圈的梁准一定也和我們一起跑康區的時候一樣投入、忘我,甚至忘記了時間,也常常忘記了他人的存在。她或者爬上高山、或者深入峽谷,那橘紅的攝影背心如一片楓葉出現在田間地頭,出現在農家小院、人流乃至叢林。我常常在海拔4000-5000多的高度看梁准如飛的腳步和拍攝時美麗的倩影。

梁准——一個用生命擁抱自然的執著的追求者,她對自然和生命的熱愛而迸發的激情使我們許多的朋友為之贊嘆和感動。

 

 

 富有創意的裝幀設計

 

特別要提到的是在這本書的的編輯過程中,梁准更是傾注了許多的心血。她自己設計版式,根據作者的思路、內容進行文字編排和配置圖片。

梁准的編輯思路也是令人感動的。憑自己對於羊圈的理解,也為了尊重魏明德先生,注重圖配文,而不是文配圖,始終將文字放在第一位,圖片隻是作為文字的補充,選擇用黑白圖片配圖,而這一大膽的設想讓人頗感意外——因為這是個攝影師不斷地以出大的彩色圖片為傲的年代,並且梁准也有大量彩圖儲備。

在照片的排版上,堅持大圖配小圖,單幅照片與組照相結合,滿幅照片出血版等靈活多樣的技巧運用,避免圖片單調呆板的排列帶給讀者的視覺疲勞。

選擇羊圈孩子們所畫圖畫,魏明德先生的手稿、素描等做配圖,都顯示出本書設計上的獨特創意。一稿、二稿……到最后的定稿,工作量之大,工作之瑣碎繁雜,非常人所能忍受,其中的酸甜苦辣,隻有梁准自己最清楚,但我們看到的永遠是她燦爛的笑容。

正是這樣富有創意而又保持原汁原味的設計理念保持了這本書原生態的展示以及文化本身的厚重,這是人文類書籍非常值得推崇和借鑒的地方,也是除內容外我喜歡這本書的另外一個理由。

如果說,在書中魏明德先生致力於羊圈的真實記錄,使我們讀到了羊圈的歷史、現狀和 人們走向世界的願望和理想,或者他們之中的無奈。那麼梁准則用圖片注解了羊圈的靈魂,使我們看到了真實的羊圈,真實的羊圈人和古老的羊圈文化。

 

攝影/梁准

如需購買《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書,請連系 梁准 Email住址會使用灌水程式保護機制。你需要啟動Javascript才能觀看它

 

 

 

 

 

Striding forward through turbulent winds

Do the lives of rebellious, angry adolescents always have to degenerate into darkness? Gua Gua's story shows us that with love and guidance, every one can discover their positive force.

In my hands is the case information of a school dropout provided by the Chong Fong Teenager's School. At the top is written: "Gua Gua, 19 years old. Sent to live with her uncle since her father passed away. Gets most of her amusement from participating in temple processions. Wears unisexual attire and is extremely loyal to her friends. She has very poor emotional control, which often leaves people unsure about her, with the impression she could erupt at any moment in time.

A preference for temple processions is certainly a rare hobby for most children of the same age as Gua Gua. Most probably prefer to linger at net cafes. This image created immediately makes one think of Lai Mingwei who took part in the Taiwanese TV programme One Million Star 2, performing as a member of the Taiwanese temple hierarchy system who wear masks and perform a mysterious dance (八家將). And her fiery temper also brings to mind the destructive Korean star Zhang He in Volcano High.

So what kind of child is Gua Gua after all?

The answer is revealed: Though she is a lively, spirited girl, who dresses neutrally, she also talks with an aggressive …tone of the leader.

Rebelling to vent her emotions

Beneath her contented smile, there lies a rough life invisible to the onlooker. “When I was one month old my mother moved houses, Father was framed and pushed down a ravine to his death. I was raised by my grandmother at my uncle's house and it wasn't until fourth grade of primary school that I found out my life story." She had called them her Mum and Dad for ten years, before realising they were not her biological parents. This was terrible blow for the young Gua Gua.

Perhaps discontent with her life, Gua Gua became rebellious. She would often miss school and not return home. Her temper deteriorated and in school, if she simply looked at someone and felt irritated she would provoke them; furthermore, she was fervently loyal to her friends and would help them when they were in trouble. This further caused her to be the subject of much animosity. Once she was even abducted to a mountain and beaten senseless. If her uncle hadn't arrived in time, she could have been long dead.

At the time she lived in Sanchih, where she was a headache for the local police, as she would be wandering the streets in the middle of the night: "I had a lot of friends, and often there would be more than twenty of us sitting on the main road, binge drinking." Her family couldn't find Gua Gua and even used the neighbourhood radio to summon Gua Gua home; however, Gua Gua was very unruly, only appearing when she had run out of money, and as soon as she had got the money she would disappear again.

Three years of youth lost immersed in the processions

Gua Gua dropped out of middle school in 3rd grade and ran off to Danshui to live with friends. Due to money requirements she joined a temple youth troupe in Danshui that her friend had introduced to her. She would take part in all the temple processions. She participated in the lion troupe, dragon troupe, vehicles troupe etc. Without realising it, she had spent three years in the youth troupes, and although she looked grandand impressive she couldn't help feeling lost: "Is this all there is to my life?"

In the busy season, Gua Gua would often take part in a dozen or more processions; however, all the money that she earned from the processions would be spend inviting her friends to dinner or KTV and midway through the month she'd be penniless. She still remembers the day that her grandma fell ill, just as he returned home to ask for money. Seeing her lying on the bed speechless, with a helpless and disappointed look in her eyes, she suddenly felt aggrieved.

"It was at that moment that I decided that I could not continue like this" Because according to Gua Gua, her grandma was the most important person in her life; she had suffered for her and loved her as she struggled to raise her. Thus Gua Gua decided to depart from the procession lifestyle and return home to help auntie sell steamed buns and work in her uncle's shoe shop. Unfortunately, regardless of what work it was, Gua Gua would always start off enthusiastic but then after a few days she would always end up running off again.

This was up until the Taipei's Northern district Juvenile Services Centre gave her a referral, from which she signed up to the 'Career Preparation Plan for the Disadvantaged Youth' held by the Bureau of Employment and Vocational Training (BEVT). This allowed her to enrol in Chong Fong Teenager's school and restart her new life.

However, with the help of social workers, who supported her with useful advice when her mood was unstable and discussed methods of mood control and emotional expression with her, she eventually managed to change her over impulsiveness. Furthermore through her career searching class she was gradually able to share her experience in services with her counterparts. This had the knock on effect of helping her express her skills and personal qualities and setting her aspirations for a future in the service industry.

Career experience and finding a settled job

Gua Gua's main aim from participating in career planning was to support herself and no longer be a burden on her family. Even so with her fiery temperature, and always overaffected by her ups and downs she often ended up resentful of her lecturers and classmates in course activities. Several times when she couldn't hold back her words this even ended up in physical conflicts.

When the course was finished, Gua Gua decided to apply for a job related to the packaging of organic foods and production assistance. Due to the social workers who supervised her progression, she also became more and more confident in her job. The day when Gua Gua was finally given the job officially, the social workers still contacted her especially, to check she was present on time, and after that they would turn up unannounced at her workplace to check on how she was getting on with her colleagues and bosses.

I still remember the first time we dropped in on her workplace; she told the social worker that her bosses and colleagues took the role of mother or auntie in guiding her so that she felt comfortable in the surroundings. Furthermore her colleagues praised the appropriateness of her speech and how well she blended in. The social workers were shocked, Gua Gua who used to be as sharp and piercing as a horn had already been moulded into a well rounded member of society. They figured that perhaps this working environment had filled up the hole that had been dug by her incomplete family life. After three months of work experience, due to her good work ethic, the company decided to take her on as a formal employee.

[important title="Currently there are over 4700 middle school students dropouts"]  and over 5000 middle school graduates who have failed to progress to the next level of schooling.The majority of these youngsters are lavishing in the margins of society without a professional skill or attractive record of schooling due to poor results in school or because of family financial difficulties. The Taiwan Alliance for Advancement of Youth Rights and Welfare which has long concerned itself with the rights and interests of young people joined with other social welfare groups to launch the "Project to increase the employability of the underprivileged youth" The project hopes to give these rebellious youth the wings to pursue these dreams, the ability to energetically compete in the labour market so that they never again fall back into adversity in their journey through life.[/important]

 

Translated from Chinese by Nicholas Coulson / Photo provided by: Taiwan Alliance for Advancement of Youth Rights and Welfare


週五, 04 十二月 2009

醫學教育再思考

針對洪蘭教授撰文批評台大醫學院學生於必修課「醫療與社會」課堂中態度不佳一事引發的後續討論,該堂任課老師後來主動投書媒體還原上課現場。說明這門一直被認為是「可能不重要」的「通識」課,其實是醫學院人文改革的一環。而在這裡,筆者想討論的則是這個危機過程中,醫學院領導階層所透顯出來的態度。

週四, 03 十二月 2009

喚醒心中的游擊精神

獨立製片人陳建軒以家樂福事件為例,向我們解釋游擊電影的精神,以及這種運動所展現的反抗力量。

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週三, 02 十二月 2009

萊登城畔話歐洲

攝影/Muhammad Haris Budiawan 翻譯/吳思薇
本文亦見於2009年12月號《人籟》論辨月刊


----------------------------------------
歐洲曾是世界的中心,也是許多人心嚮往之的精神原鄉;
今日歐洲依舊美好,昔日風華卻逐漸面臨改變與考驗。
觀看歐洲如何調適自我、迎接挑戰,又給身處在台灣的我們何種啟發?
----------------------------------------


昔日歐洲:世界中心的轉變
1971年,美國知名猶太作家沃克(Herman Wouk)出版了關於二次大戰的小說巨作《戰爭風雲》(The Winds of War),後來被改編成迷你影集,由已逝明星勞勃米契(Robert Mitchum)主演。這部作品描述戰爭早期,也就是美國參戰前的歷史,透過美國海軍軍官亨利和他的家人,讀者得以一窺戰爭爆發、軍情沸騰之際的歐洲政治與生活概況。故事本身極富興味,其中巧妙穿插了和墨索里尼在羅馬的私下聚會、與一位民族主義的德國侍者在柏林的相遇,一場波蘭的猶太婚禮,以及和邱吉爾的密談。不過此作有個相當震撼的插曲──小說最後引入了一個新要素:亞洲。某位配角隨口和人提起了日本人。在敘事主線於歐洲鋪陳數年後,主角們赫然發現自己身處太平洋地帶;然而書中並沒有表明這點,便以日本轟炸珍珠港作結。

  或許這當中最驚人之處在於,二次大戰時沃克服役於美國海軍,一直待在太平洋戰區,可是當戰爭即將結束(用他的話來說就是「把二次大戰套牢」),他在解釋戰爭發生的原因時,卻幾乎把焦點全放在歐洲。由此觀之,我認為沃克乃是時代中人。二十世紀的美國經常心向歐洲,因為世界經濟長久以來都以歐洲為中心,大部分的美國人也自認為是歐洲後裔。但這一切都有可能改變,也許有一天(或許早已來臨了也說不定),歐洲將不再是美國人直覺面向之所。


今日歐洲:如何迎向未來挑戰?
我成年後大部分的人生都在海外度過,而且是在亞洲。一個月前我初到歐洲──姿態上比較像是亨利米勒而非海明威。讓我先說件顯而易見的事:歐洲真是太妙了。傳聞都是真的,甚至比傳說中的還好。我在荷蘭的大學城萊登(Leiden),而這個城市的歷史可以上溯到羅馬時期。坐在運河邊喝黑咖啡,在秋陽下享受荷蘭人的好客,知道巴黎不過在數小時火車車程之外──除非存心唱反調,不然有哪個感覺敏銳、通情達理的人能不為之心醉?

荷蘭雖好,人口卻與柬埔寨約略相當,跟前殖民地印尼相比地更是小得可憐。而歐洲也無法依靠經濟優勢成為關注的焦點,如今只有亞洲後起之秀方能如此。此外歐洲內部也逐漸在改變:大城市的街上,充斥著來自亞非的新移民與他們在當地生下的孩子。我們當然可以合理懷疑,歐洲是否仍能像沃克寫作之時一樣,吸引眾人的目光?或是說,年復一年的移民潮過後,歐洲還會保有我們在二十世紀時所認識的風貌嗎?對於我這個想尋找確切答案的短暫過客來說,這些都是無力解決的大問題。但我可以冒險一猜,而答案可謂是充滿希望。

我不認為歐洲的光彩繫於任何一套固定的傳統,因為歐洲不僅是啟蒙運動誕生之處,也是此類思想活躍之所;這份風華賴以為生的傳統,至今仍在製造當代的文化。我看到移民之子與歐洲本土後代彼此接納,其方式跟我理解到的美國理想主義十分接近,而在進展之餘也不會因此犧牲本身的底蘊;何況歐洲在面對世界經濟情勢的變化時,也是以加強歐盟內部的團結來與印度、中國與美國抗衡。換言之,若要調整沃克那種對歐洲的過分重視,我認為解決之道並不在於貶低這個生氣勃勃的所在,而是要了解其他地區的活力、去擁抱這個多元的世界,而非單純把重心轉移到另一個地方。

歐洲會變得如何?我想這問題要留給目眩神迷的新來者,而且足以讓他們問上好一陣子。



想瞭解更多關於這篇文章的寫作背景與相關論點,請看2009年12月號《人籟》論辨月刊。

附加的多媒體:
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週三, 02 十二月 2009

Yo and Waka

In a collaboration with Satyana’s Butoh Dance Troupe, bringing the essence of India to Taiwan, Yo and Waka perform bi-weekly, on a wednesday night in Beitou, Taipei. Having both spent time in India learning the instruments, they have an expert finesse to send you floating into a mystical dream world.

Attached media :

For readers in mainland China (apologies about the advertisements):

週一, 30 十一月 2009

Treasure Hill

Treasure Hill is located on the site of a temple devoted to Guanyin, in Taipei. Over fifty years ago, people started building their own houses, on this land owned by the Ministry of National Defense. Originally it was settled in by war veterans, but developed into a community composed mainly of poor people, migrant workers and others who couldn’t afford the steep prices in the area. Thus the inhabitants were generally a marginalised and voiceless community. In 2004, the government declared that it was going to raze the buildings in the pursuit of urban development. Students and teachers of several National Taiwan University departments along with the NGO ’OURS’ and many ’Artivists’ acted to try and save the residences. The academics and artivists attempted to support the cause, and give voice to the voiceless by putting it in a context that would be more likely to achieve government support. 


Zijie, who studies at NTU’s Social Work department was amongst those who joined the experiment. Zijie and a small group were given a place that local photographer, Li Guomin (李國民), had been fixing up, to base themselves and live from for the following six months. Many artivists resided at Treasure Hill for short periods of time, few lived for long spells of time. For Taiwan it was an experimental, but historical cooperation between art and activism. For some of those involved, it was a cultural space that had art potential, others were more concerned about the residents property rights. Their actions had both successes and failures, but finally in 2006, the government took the decision to go ahead in evicting residents and taking down buildings. When renovation is completed this year a small proportion of the residents have been promised they will be allowed back.

Yang Zijie, Li Guomin and another reknowned artist Wu Zhongwei (吳中煒), were among three people accused and sued by the government.

Two years after, the artivists and residents were evicted, Zijie reflects on the movement to maintain Treasure Hill. With hindsight, He discusses the pitfalls and difficulties involved in understanding the needs of those one is trying to help when socially engaging and which aspects he feels could have been handled better.
 


Introduction by Nick Coulson


 

週六, 28 十一月 2009

Art, love, life, death and the spirits in Bantul

A slightly overdue medicine for spiritual renewal finally drifts over from the South Pacific seas and archipelagos ---- 2007 Perfurbance#3 Performance Art Festival, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

After spending the Septembers of 2005/2006 and the Aprils of 2007/8 on Java Island, I’m almost like a Java migratory bird. It can only be destiny; no other reason could explain why a Taiwanese has become so addicted to Indonesian Arts.

The island of Java is the stronghold of Indonesian arts. The three main Colleges of the Arts, located in the capital, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta, have their walls plastered in graffiti by the students; whilst their own bodies are often covered in tattoos, though in no way appear menacing. Smoking one kretek clove cigarette after another whilst listening to Bob Marley and heavy metal, painting anarchist slogans and drinking spirits made from the blood of crocodile penis! Many radical elements of western culture have transcended space and time to blossom anew in Indonesia and even if the deeper connotations are not always comprehended, rhythm is always far greater than meaning, and action more noble than thought. The artists have grown up absorbing this school atmosphere it has released an indiscernible, explosive quality about them. Furthermore, I am sure that this is more than an illusion of foreign exotique. In both life and the arts in Indonesia, the two poles of tradition and modernity coexist together, like plaintiff and defendant endlessly battling on, the richest and poorest landscapes appear on the same visual frame taunting, mocking; creating a aesthetic of conflict.

In recent years, the island of Java has had a number of arts festivals; perhaps this explosion in activity is due to the endless exhibitions, needed to allow artists to maintain material stability, and also because of the ease with which they can apply to government or foreign arts foundations for festival and event expenses (of which us foreign artists both doubtful and envious). The impressive Perfurbance #3 Art Festival (Performance Art Festival) with the theme of "Spiritual Renewal" was held in April 2006. The Director was Iwan Wijono, who was previously invited and came to perform in Taiwan in 2005. He comports himself like a revolutionary and was originally concerning himself with the problems that globalization and the expanding free market have been causing for daily Indonesian lives; while more recently due to the recurring local natural disasters, he has turned his attention to these more urgent matters.

The Perfurbance#3 festival lasted for five days, with worn-down from travel artists from a dozen or so different nationalities descending on Yogyakarta’s Gemblangan Village on April 25 2007, the province where the terrifying earthquake on the 27th May 2006 had been the deadliest, with more than 6000 villagers killed, and the village almost completely destroyed. Our art here didn’t quite seem like the truth, because the real truth was in front of us: the roof tiles from unfinished constructions, livestock wondering about aimlessly, as were the shy children; the old woman were beating the rice grain and the mother’s breastfeeding their babies. Meanwhile the performance artists accessed all areas of the village - the rice fields, the village homes, the river and even the cemetery.

Though it was blistering hot, it did not matter, for during the rainy season, the afternoon thunderstorms never fail to arrive on time, and when the rain desisted, the activities would restart. Meanwhile, to one side the young boys seemed to rather continue playing in the ditch. The traditional Javanese performances commenced on the temporary stages we had put up using steel frames. Some were serious, some kitsch, and some dances summoned and interrupted the spirits and the performances were all intertwined into the festival’s other activities. sometimes artists would go and draw with the kids or work alongside the women of the village - the women were responsible for the festival’s meals, skilfully crushing the flaming red peppers or serving sweet, hot tea.

In the countryside, especially here in the tropics, everything is slow and drawn out…

As the artists progressed with the timetable, the festival personnel acted as guides, leading the audience to the part of the village where the next act would be held. Since this was an arts festival, different forms of artistic expression came together and unfolded before our eyes; a man lying with candles lit over his whole body, another dragging a string behind him with which he collected and pulled rubbish, one smashed his own reflection in a mirror, everyone gathered and took pose in the graveyard; toy soldiers were stuck into the rice-paddies, smoke blew in all four directions and everyone was invited to gather and eat the local durian fruit...And this was only the so called ‘art’ - many surrounding events reminded us of what was real: on the third day a village grandma passed away and all the clamour of the performances had to be stopped temporarily while the artists in the village lined up with the villagers in the funeral procession. They marched up to their destination where the corpse, rather than going in with the coffin, was lifted out, wrapped in a piece of cloth was lowered into the hole in the ground, and covered very simply in soil...this was death.

On the last day of the festival, the wife of an Indonesian artist named Ronald Apriyan gave birth to a baby girl, with a head full of thick black hair she was wrapped in a pink blanket...a new life was beginning.

Compared to other festivals, the immediate situation in Bantul seemed too tragic and some of the acts also seemed too warm, however at the same time they were very...real, so real that a year later I still remember the events profoundly. I still ponder the differences between the art and real lives. Still now I am ashamed to use my own body to make performance art...The director, Iwan Wijono, said at the end "let us hold the next Perfurbance at the foot of the volcano Gunung Merapi". Surely he was joking, we thought, but he was deadly serious and the following Perfurbance "Global Warming, Global Warning" was indeed held there. Like all the Indonesians I met he was an explosive activist.

We certainly didn’t have our expenses nor even our plane tickets compensated for at this festival, but that’s ok because this kind of spiritual renewal should always be priceless.

Translation from Chinese by Nick Coulson


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週六, 05 九月 2009

彼此竞争或相互扶持?

卢俊义牧师谈论台湾教育因过度强调竞争所产生的问题。

附加的多媒体:
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週三, 02 九月 2009

危機年代裡的文化力量

文化的柔性力量,也許可以為諸多全球性問題提供解決之道。

附加的多媒體:
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