Erenlai - Building communities 族群重建
Building communities 族群重建

Building communities 族群重建

 

The materials here explore how community frontiers and boundaries are being reshaped in Asia, at local and international levels.

從山巔到海濱,從語言到文化,亞洲族群靠著不同的力量逐步重建。在這條未知的旅程上,有許多值得分享的智慧與動力。

 

週二, 03 五 2011

永遠的弱勢守護者:聖若瑟的松喬老爹

來自地球另一端的松喬神父,在資源貧瘠的雲林虎尾創辦了聖若瑟醫院。他以院為家,無私奉獻五十年,就像一位親切的父親般,一直守護在窮人、弱勢和孩子身邊。

週二, 15 三月 2011

Teambuilding

We quite spontaneously equate “teambuilding” with “leadership.”  This might be a misperception. In the teambuilding process each team member is a team builder, and nothing can be achieved without the active participation of all people involved.  Both team spirit and the fruits of the project on which the team works belong to all those who participated in it.  You may say that in every collective project there are two things created at the same time: the work that is accomplished (a rocket, a magazine, a building, a new medication…) and the team that has produced the work.

However, it is true that, in every team, there are people whose specific service is to ensure the cohesion and wellbeing of the team as a human group. This is a service like another one, as can be the one of cooking, doing accounting or conducting research. Team builders are “leaders’ only in the sense that they empower each and every member to be one of the team builders, that they intuit where the difficulties come from, and invent ways to heal the body divided against itself when conflicts and misunderstandings occur.

The New Testament offers to us two figures of great team builders: Jesus and Paul.  Jesus did not create an “institution”, he shaped the men and women who were following him. But he shaped them as part of a living community. During his final march towards Jerusalem he was leading a group of disciples bitterly divided among themselves. They were quarrelling over who was the greatest among them. Dissensions linked to differences in background, political opinions and appreciation of the situation were obviously growing. During the Last Supper, Jesus shares the bread and the chalice with people who seem to feel confused, angry and bitter.

They will eventually unite, first around the absence of Jesus and then – decisively – around the Risen One. The Acts of the Apostles tell us how they creatively start to build a community with others, in the recollection of the example of teambuilding that Jesus gave them. Paul will continue such work, building local churches and exhorting them, often with tears, to conduct themselves in justice and charity, and to renounce everything that causes divisions.

May we likewise overcome our ego and its limitations, so as to all become the “living stones’ of the teams we work in, and – looking even farther – of an ever-growing human community.

Photo by B.V.

週四, 23 十二月 2010

國際風:和THC一起燃燒小宇宙

THC - Taipei Hip Hop Crew,成軍於2006年,由一群熱愛HIP HOP,來自不同國家, 不同文化的人所組成 --- THC的團員來自台灣、美國、加拿大和尼泊爾。他們說著不同的語言:中文、英文與法文,使這個團體變的非常特別 --- 讓我們聽聽他們對音樂的想法!

週二, 17 十一月 2009

Hope against all hopes

One thing that makes you desperate about the world is that problems, big and small, seem to remain around without ever being solved. Afghanistan makes Obama sleepless; the Middle East changes only for the worse; negotiations on climate change are protracted; bankers have gone back to their indecent bonuses; corruption and short-term interests are still hindering the shift towards sustainable development in most countries; Taiwan politics remains… well… Taiwan politics… and the list could go on indefinitely.

Of course, when you look more carefully at the picture you might feel a little less desperate. People easily forget the progresses already accomplished, the breakthrough having occurred in the past, and we all naturally focus on what is still going wrong. Even more important is the fact that most problems are not just fixed in one or two moves but require long-term, incremental adjustments. Nobody ever found a vaccine against cancer, but modes of treatments are indeed more sophisticated and successful than, say, fifteen years ago. Humankind had always been “muddling through”, and will presumably continue do so. “Muddling through” does not make for good movies plots (we go for decisive triumphs and crushing defeats), but constitutes the very substance of our everyday struggles.

As we enter Christmas time, we may be remembered that real progresses are often silent and discreet. They start from something that has changed within us and is communicated around, as a candle’s fire kindles other fires. Just for taking an example: for sure, negotiations on climate change are important, and we need new regulations. At the same time, if humankind is to overcome such challenge it will come from changes in consumption models, awareness of the challenges resulting in shifting behaviors, entrepreneurs’ commitment to shift to renewable, non polluting energies even if there is still some extra cost involved in such a move… These changes are actually already happening, just because concerned individuals and companies make them happen. Networks spread around knowledge and ideas, public opinion translates them into forces for change, and local leaders sometimes are able to mobilize whole communities.

Such outcome never comes automatically. It germinates within the hearts of individuals who have decided to take seriously the challenges to which they can practically respond, and who associate with like-minded people. As happens when we contemplate the Christmas manger, we are often moved by the very weakness of these individuals or local communities: the Pakistani village that transforms itself though micro-credit; Afghan women mobilizing against violence, as Irish women did a few decades ago; aboriginal communities struggling to maintain their identity and traditional setting… Paradoxically, their weakness becomes their strength, as it tells us something fundamental about human life: problems are not solved by problem-solvers; they must be tackled at their root thanks to a revolution from the heart.

(Photo by C. Phiv)

週六, 24 十月 2009

慢慢来,比较快!

图片提供/黄盈豪
本文为节录,完整内容请见2009年11月号《人籁》论辨月刊


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原住民部落于八八水灾中受创严重,大水覆没家园,文化传承同样面临巨大考验。在舆论压力下,政府迅速展开一连串灾后重建计划,只是做得快未必表示做得好,面对艰困的重建路,或许我们需要思考另一种慢的艺术。
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莫拉克水灾重创南台湾,受灾地区大多是原住民部落,或许目前媒体的关注已经退却,但仍有上千灾民安置在各个军事营区,面临家屋重建或是迁村的难题。从紧急救援到临时安置再到社区重建,整个复原过程可能至少需要五年,而在重建过程中,要怎么做,才能尊重原住民特殊的文化传统?


921经验:民间力量的重要性
笔者曾长期参与921部落重建工作,也曾以社工的角色参与七二水灾、四川震灾的救援与重建。从过去的经验看这次的救灾,笔者想呼吁跨文化的工作模式将是重建成败与否的重要关键,而不是政治力量的操纵或是大量的资源挹注。

以921灾后大安溪的泰雅族三叉坑部落重建为例,整个迁村过程花了超过六年才告完成。原住民部落跟平地社区很不一样,不只有复杂的土地问题,还有不一样的部落生态与文化。重建过程中,我们做社区工作的也在向部落学习,学习部落自有一套的步调和价值。当时因为政府和外来协力团队都在慢慢摸索重建的适当方法,部落组织又还在被培力的阶段,加上新部落盖起来的意志让多数人把焦点放在硬体设施的建设上,所以较无力处理传统文化的议题。还好重建期程够长,政府、部落和外来团队有足够的时间互相理解和磨合。

此外,921最动人的经验是民间力量的百花齐放。各个灾区因为在地人民的参与,加上民间力量的创意和资源技术的引入,不只社区营造开始动起来,更使整个中台湾民间力量汇集与升华。文化创意产业及社区意识的抬头,是921地震为中台湾留下的重要资产。


莫拉克经验:尊重部落文化
反观这次莫拉克水灾,除了地方与中央的政治角力外,过分强调效率与政绩,以及太多指导性的所谓的921经验,都让这次的灾后重建越来越隐晦和绑手绑脚,更抹煞了对于原住民文化特殊性的尊重。

如在紧急安置时,未考量原住民多数为基督信仰与荤食,让灾民在庙宇和素食斋饭中难以身心安顿;舍弃组合屋和中继概念直接跳到军营安置和永久屋的讨论,除了是重视政绩与效率,也反映执政者不明白:唯有让灾民回到部落的土地,才有部落和文化的养分支持大家继续参与后续长期的重建;慈济等民间团体协助兴建永久屋,用的是大众的捐款,却可以决定永久屋的形式和对于社区未来生活的想像(记得吗?慈济921灾后津津乐道的学校重建,几乎都是灰色和静思堂形状),为何不是以住民意见为主要考量、以当地部落文化为主要特色来思考永久屋的建造?

很多自以为专业的心理师或社工人员蜂拥至灾区,不懂当地原住民的语言、文化、习性、连跟部落一起讨论事情的能力都没有。这已不是专不专业的问题,而是有没有跨文化工作模式的问题。外来工作者愿不愿意放下身段与当地族人一起生活、愿不愿意蹲点、愿不愿意花时间倾听、愿不愿意运用当地人成为你的工作人员等等,都是外来团体和政府在重建过程可以有跨文化反省和修正的地方。但是强调绩效、流于形式的重建规划,扼杀的不只是民间的力量与创意,在地社群的主体性和文化的多元更难以开展。



欲详细了解「慢慢来,比较快」的社区工作理念,请看2009年11月号《人籁》论辨月刊。

更多关于莫拉克风灾的灾后重建
走过风雨,携手重建

附加的多媒体:
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週五, 23 十月 2009

慢慢來,比較快!

圖片提供/黃盈豪
本文為節錄,完整內容請見2009年11月號《人籟》論辨月刊


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原住民部落於八八水災中受創嚴重,大水覆沒家園,文化傳承同樣面臨巨大考驗。在輿論壓力下,政府迅速展開一連串災後重建計劃,只是做得快未必表示做得好,面對艱困的重建路,或許我們需要思考另一種慢的藝術。
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莫拉克水災重創南台灣,受災地區大多是原住民部落,或許目前媒體的關注已經退卻,但仍有上千災民安置在各個軍事營區,面臨家屋重建或是遷村的難題。從緊急救援到臨時安置再到社區重建,整個復原過程可能至少需要五年,而在重建過程中,要怎麼做,才能尊重原住民特殊的文化傳統?


921經驗:民間力量的重要性
筆者曾長期參與921部落重建工作,也曾以社工的角色參與七二水災、四川震災的救援與重建。從過去的經驗看這次的救災,筆者想呼籲跨文化的工作模式將是重建成敗與否的重要關鍵,而不是政治力量的操縱或是大量的資源挹注。

以921災後大安溪的泰雅族三叉坑部落重建為例,整個遷村過程花了超過六年才告完成。原住民部落跟平地社區很不一樣,不只有複雜的土地問題,還有不一樣的部落生態與文化。重建過程中,我們做社區工作的也在向部落學習,學習部落自有一套的步調和價值。當時因為政府和外來協力團隊都在慢慢摸索重建的適當方法,部落組織又還在被培力的階段,加上新部落蓋起來的意志讓多數人把焦點放在硬體設施的建設上,所以較無力處理傳統文化的議題。還好重建期程夠長,政府、部落和外來團隊有足夠的時間互相理解和磨合。

此外,921最動人的經驗是民間力量的百花齊放。各個災區因為在地人民的參與,加上民間力量的創意和資源技術的引入,不只社區營造開始動起來,更使整個中台灣民間力量匯集與昇華。文化創意產業及社區意識的抬頭,是921地震為中台灣留下的重要資產。


莫拉克經驗:尊重部落文化
反觀這次莫拉克水災,除了地方與中央的政治角力外,過分強調效率與政績,以及太多指導性的所謂的921經驗,都讓這次的災後重建越來越隱晦和綁手綁腳,更抹煞了對於原住民文化特殊性的尊重。

如在緊急安置時,未考量原住民多數為基督信仰與葷食,讓災民在廟宇和素食齋飯中難以身心安頓;捨棄組合屋和中繼概念直接跳到軍營安置和永久屋的討論,除了是重視政績與效率,也反映執政者不明白:唯有讓災民回到部落的土地,才有部落和文化的養分支持大家繼續參與後續長期的重建;慈濟等民間團體協助興建永久屋,用的是大眾的捐款,卻可以決定永久屋的形式和對於社區未來生活的想像(記得嗎?慈濟921災後津津樂道的學校重建,幾乎都是灰色和靜思堂形狀),為何不是以住民意見為主要考量、以當地部落文化為主要特色來思考永久屋的建造?

很多自以為專業的心理師或社工人員蜂擁至災區,不懂當地原住民的語言、文化、習性、連跟部落一起討論事情的能力都沒有。這已不是專不專業的問題,而是有沒有跨文化工作模式的問題。外來工作者願不願意放下身段與當地族人一起生活、願不願意蹲點、願不願意花時間傾聽、願不願意運用當地人成為你的工作人員等等,都是外來團體和政府在重建過程可以有跨文化反省和修正的地方。但是強調績效、流於形式的重建規劃,扼殺的不只是民間的力量與創意,在地社群的主體性和文化的多元更難以開展。



欲詳細了解「慢慢來,比較快」的社區工作理念,請看2009年11月號《人籟》論辨月刊。

更多關於莫拉克風災的災後重建
走過風雨,攜手重建

附加的多媒體:
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週五, 09 十月 2009

四川西南部的尔苏人(二)

尔苏人对自己的来源多半讳莫如深。在当地的传说中,他们是青藏高原上的一支部族,被松赞佩干布打败后逃亡至此,祖先怕儿女受累,于是隐瞒出身真相。但经过考证,尔苏人与中国西南的羌人有很大关系:汉晋以来的史书曾经提到,分布在尔苏人居处这带的羌族部落共有二十多种;而且过去的尔苏人除了族内通婚,只和石棉等地的羌族论及婚嫁。此外,尔苏人在嫁娶上的习俗则与凉山彝族类似,例如婚礼中的泼水与涂黑脸等。

尔苏人的男性普遍高大英挺,头发微卷、高鼻深目为重要的脸部特徵;影片中唱歌的男性正符合这样的典型轮廓。他们妇女则多缠黑白布帕,用银色圆球点缀额前。

附加的多媒体:
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週五, 09 十月 2009

四川西南部的爾蘇人(二)

爾蘇人對自己的來源多半諱莫如深。在當地的傳說中,他們是青藏高原上的一支部族,被松贊佩幹布打敗後逃亡至此,祖先怕兒女受累,於是隱瞞出身真相。但經過考證,爾蘇人與中國西南的羌人有很大關係:漢晉以來的史書曾經提到,分佈在爾蘇人居處這帶的羌族部落共有二十多種;而且過去的爾蘇人除了族內通婚,只和石棉等地的羌族論及婚嫁。此外,爾蘇人在嫁娶上的習俗則與涼山彝族類似,例如婚禮中的潑水與塗黑臉等。

爾蘇人的男性普遍高大英挺,頭髮微卷、高鼻深目為重要的臉部特徵;影片中唱歌的男性正符合這樣的典型輪廓。他們婦女則多纏黑白布帕,用銀色圓球點綴額前。

附加的多媒體:
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週五, 02 十月 2009

四川西南部的尔苏人(一)

影片中,两位来自四川省西南部石棉县的尔苏人唱著尔苏语歌谣。


今日中国境内约有两万名尔苏人。他们被划分为藏族的一支,但其语言和生活习惯却和藏人有很大的不同。在他们自己的语言中,「尔苏人」就是「白人」的意思。尔苏人主要分布在凉山的甘洛、越西、冕宁、木里,还有还有雅安地区的石棉、汉源,以及甘孜藏族自治州的九龙等县。依据所在地的不同,居住在甘洛、越西、汉源的尔苏人自称为「尔苏」或「布尔兹尔苏」;分布在冕宁东部地区的自称「多续」,分布在石棉的自称「鲁苏」,至于分布在九龙、木里以及冕宁西部的则自称为「栗苏」。


尔苏人称自己的文字为「扎拉玛」,有如一个个的图案,和云南纳西族的东巴文并列为中国罕见的图画文字。这种文字是由「萨巴」(尔苏文「祭师」之义)在宗教仪式中所使用,目前保留了十多种文献,内容涉及历史、宗教、天象、历法、医药、语言等。可惜的是,现在看懂这种文字的尔苏人可谓少之又少。随著当地原始社会的现代化,尔苏人的习俗和语言正在快速流失。在石棉县,虽然当地政府有提出计画,鼓励尔苏人学习自己的传统宗教仪式,却鲜少有年轻人愿意花费大量时间与心力,跟族内老人研究繁琐的祭祀过程。


倒是尔苏人的音乐透过代代相传,得以保留的部分也比较多,甚至有人致力于经典曲目的传承。尔苏歌手多为男性,他们的曲调声音高亢,和其他西南少数民族歌谣大不相同。风格上来说既有点像蒙古长调,也像陕北与甘肃一带的民歌。

附加的多媒体:
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週五, 02 十月 2009

四川西南部的爾蘇人(一)

影片中,兩位來自四川省西南部石棉縣的爾蘇人唱著爾蘇語歌謠。


今日中國境內約有兩萬名爾蘇人。他們被劃分為藏族的一支,但其語言和生活習慣卻和藏人有很大的不同。在他們自己的語言中,「爾蘇人」就是「白人」的意思。爾蘇人主要分佈在涼山的甘洛、越西、冕寧、木裡,還有還有雅安地區的石棉、漢源,以及甘孜藏族自治州的九龍等縣。依據所在地的不同,居住在甘洛、越西、漢源的爾蘇人自稱為「爾蘇」或「布爾茲爾蘇」;分佈在冕寧東部地區的自稱「多續」,分佈在石棉的自稱「魯蘇」,至於分佈在九龍、木裡以及冕寧西部的則自稱為「栗蘇」。


爾蘇人稱自己的文字為「扎拉瑪」,有如一個個的圖案,和雲南納西族的東巴文並列為中國罕見的圖畫文字。這種文字是由「薩巴」(爾蘇文「祭師」之義)在宗教儀式中所使用,目前保留了十多種文獻,內容涉及歷史、宗教、天象、曆法、醫藥、語言等。可惜的是,現在看懂這種文字的爾蘇人可謂少之又少。隨著當地原始社會的現代化,爾蘇人的習俗和語言正在快速流失。在石棉縣,雖然當地政府有提出計畫,鼓勵爾蘇人學習自己的傳統宗教儀式,卻鮮少有年輕人願意花費大量時間與心力,跟族內老人研究繁瑣的祭祀過程。


倒是爾蘇人的音樂透過代代相傳,得以保留的部分也比較多,甚至有人致力於經典曲目的傳承。爾蘇歌手多為男性,他們的曲調聲音高亢,和其他西南少數民族歌謠大不相同。風格上來說既有點像蒙古長調,也像陝北與甘肅一帶的民歌。

附加的多媒體:
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週五, 27 二月 2009

Thinking Globally, Teaching Locally

In Taiwan, county administrations are responsible for primary education. With 3,8 million inhabitants, Taipei county (which does not include Taipei city) is the most populated of the island. Its population is also the most varied: Minnan, Hakkas, Taiwanese, aboriginal settlements, immigrants from abroad, people from central and southern Taiwan migrating to the outskirts of Taipei...
No wonder, the county puts special emphasis on language education, be it Chinese, minority languages or English. It has edited a series of special textbooks for developing taste and skills in reading and writing, as well as a more imaginative and reflexive outlook thanks to the pedagogical openings that language education provide teachers with. This set of textbooks comes with formation sessions offered to teachers and parents alike.
Her-Ran Liou, chief of the education bureau, shares with us his vision and concern: how to balance opening to other cultures with a healthy respect and interest for one’s own?

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週二, 24 二月 2009

More Than Just a Meal

Aurelie comments on one of the photographs she took for a book presenting twelve associations in Taiwan. Read her introduction to the project below.

A three-storied house on a hill in Muzha, on a Saturday afternoon. In the playground, young kids have a nap after lunchtime. At first sight, you would think you are in a kindergarten. But as I enter, nannies disinfect my hands. Others are giving ‘magic cocktails’, which is medication, to some children. Upstairs, elder kids have class with a volunteer teacher. We are in an orphanage where some children carry HIV, run by Yangjie, a ’second mum’ to the 24 children.
Yangjie’s devotion to the children is a story of love and fight for life; offering a second chance to the ones who need it the most.

This photo book is a story full of interesting encounters, emotions captured through the lens of a camera… The twelve people in this book have different backgrounds and stories to tell, but to me they were one and the same: people who went through difficult times and now are making a difference in the society for others.

For example, after the sudden death of her husband, Mrs Wu built an association to welcome single parents. Following the 1999 earthquake, which devastated Nantou County, Mr 廖振益 built ‘Longyan Community‘ to distribute lunch boxes to the ones in need. Now, these associations have grown bigger and I could see how the combined efforts of the community can put an end to loneliness and turn it into positive energy.

Problems do not simply disappear and it takes time to learn to live with them, but as Mrs Wu working at “Single Families Association” in Taipei, told me: “When I am helping the people coming here, I am also helping myself”. Indeed, as handicaps or hard times affect people’s lives, it can also mean a new beginning to one’s life, a new experience, a new challenge.

All the pictures in this book are matters of reflection to me, and make me think of what can still be worked on: A better access to normal education for children carrying HIV, training courses other than massage courses for blind people, more programs of rehabilitations for ex-prisoners…

As I was photographing, I learned more about the Taiwanese society. These people could be me or you. And as it did for me, I hope this book will call for more collective awareness among others.

Here is the link to Oliver Yang, the other photographer with whom I worked on this project:
photoxgo

Attached media :

For readers in mainland China:

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