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Erenlai - Liang Zhun (梁准)
Liang Zhun (梁准)

Liang Zhun (梁准)


"Ah-zhun" (AZ) is a photographer and reporter from Canton who has lived in Sichuan for the last fifteen years, researching the ethnic minorities of southwestern China. She has taught photography in two universities of Chengdu, and is a member of the Chinese Society for Ethnographic Photography. She has volunteered in the areas devastated by the Sichuan earthquake for more than five months. She is now starting anew as the chief editor of "A-Z cultural enterprise, Shanghai", a company specializing in cultural exchange and creation.

週二, 28 十月 2014 00:00


2014年10月19日,德日進哲學思想研討會── 「德日進和人類未來」在北京盛大舉辦,約有一百位與會人士。

本次活動是中法建交50周年紀念系列活動之一。主辦單位為北京語言大學首都國際文化研究基地與法國德日進之友協會(Association des Amis de Pierre Teilhard de Chardin),協辦單位是法國學院(Institut Français) 與北京中國學中心(The Beijing Center for Chinese Studies)。






週二, 08 三月 2011 14:55






週二, 07 八月 2012 17:07






































週三, 28 十二月 2011 18:07

Summer in Yangjuan Pass

I have travelled many times to Liangshan Prefecture, home of Sichuan’s Yi minority. Reporting on festivals in Zhaojue, Puge or Meigu counties, I have taken countless photographs and made many Yi friends, whom I like to visit each time I am back in Liangshan.

It was only during the summer of 2006, however, that I went to Yanyuan County, in the western corner of the prefecture. I was accompanying a French scholar, Benoit Vermander, to Yangjuan village. Yangjuan has more or less become a household name in Liangshan and Chengdu, as a school has been built there thanks to the efforts of Benoit, Professor Stevan Harrell (University of Washington in Seattle) and many friends from Chengdu and other parts of China. Not only does Yangjuan enjoy the benefits of a good primary school, it has also embarked on a variety of experiments: summer educational courses, hydraulic works, sheep rearing and following the lives of young migrant workers… Most of these experiments are small-scale, which is actually an advantage because it allows for trial and error, involvement of the villagers, and potential duplication in other places… Even if the experience remains limited in scope, Yangjuan is a kind of social laboratory.

In fact, “Yangjuan” is not the official name of the place. This community is officially part of Baiwu Township, in the north-central part of Yanyuan County. The area is beautiful, with streams and cliffs, fields of buckwheat, corn and sunflowers. There are mountains on all sides, rich with forests of Yunnan Pine and hundreds of species of plants. Sheep, goats, horses, cattle and pigs graze in the pastures. However, I know that in wintertime, things are different. Everything is barren, water is sorely lacking, people are cold, malnourished and often sick without reliable medical care. Development is needed, but local people must be the actors of the development process.

What made summer of 2006 so special was also that Benoit was not alone this year. He came with his younger sister, his brother in law and their four children (7 to 13 years old); all of them arriving directly from France. Going to Yangjuan when this is your first trip to China is most certainly not a banal experience!

These pictures document this extraordinary summer at a remote village in Liangshan, where friends come together every summer, to forge a tiny part of a better future…

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週三, 28 十二月 2011 17:45

Shiqu, the birthplace of King Gesar


The district of Shiqu (Serxu in Tibetan) is located on the border of the Ganze Tibetan Prefecture (Sichuan) where it belongs, the region of Tibet proper and Qinghai province. More than a thousand kilometers away from Chengdu, at an average altitude of 4.526 meters, and twenty-five thousand square kilometers large, the district harbors a population of seventy thousand people, almost all farmers, surviving a severe climate (an average of 1.6 degrees below zero, and record cold dropping to 46 degrees below zero). The miracle is that this area is the one where began to be composed the epic of King Gesar, considered the longest poem in the world. The district also claims to be the birthplace of this legendary Tibetan king. It also keeps the longest wall of Mani stones, and a "city" dedicated to the souls of dead heroes.


The photographs gathered here gives testimony to a world with no equivalent. The Barge wall, 53 kilometers away from the district township, is located between a mountain and the sacred waters from which emerges the Yalong River. Started in 1640, repeatedly repaired and expanded since then, the wall now extends over a length of 1.7 kilometer, and its height ranges between two and three meters. The majority of stones that adorn the building are Mani stones (or simply "manis"), which are so called because they are carved with the famous mantra “om ma ni padme hum” ("the mantra of the six syllables" or “drug yi ge pa” in Tibetan). But the Barge wall also comprises more than three thousand stones decorated with representations of Buddhist deities, and about seven thousand stones inlaid with various sutras.

As to the "funeral city" of Songge, it is composed of a wall nine feet high surrounding an accumulation of stupas, through which the visitor circulates as in a maze after having entered through a back door. Its wall (which extends 73 meters from west to east and 47 meters from north to south) is also composed of Mani stones, sutras carved in stone and a sacred iconography, among which the few scholars who have been able to come there are able to identify representations of King Gesar and thirty-General of the State of Ling of which he was the overlord. At the very center of this construction stands a well, the depth of which has not been probed. The construction of this "city" began around the eleventh or twelfth century. It is probably a kind of memorial for the heroes fallen during the wars fought by King Gesar. The epic sings the repentance finally shown by the uncle of King Gesar, his hardened opponent, after he had killed several heroes. The funeral city would then have been built as a sign of atonement.

Nomadic tribes still live in the area. They bring along with them sacred vessels and erect a “portable temple” in a tent wherever they have decided to camp. The whole region is marked by such extremes of hardship, poetry and faith…

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週三, 28 十二月 2011 17:23

Muli, an ethnic frontier

Muli is a tiny multi-ethnic county at the southwest corner of Sichuan province, nearby Yunnan province. On its west, lies the Ganze Tibetan autonomous prefecture. Muli itself is officially called a “Tibetan autonomous county”, though it is located within the “Yi Prefecture” of Liangshan, the Yi being another important ethnic group of Southwest China.

In this multi ethnic county, and contrarily to their neighbors, the Tibetan population is little prone to migrations, as tourism prospects are opening up (although much more timidly than in adjacent Yunnan province) with the re-assertion of the Tibetan character and culture of the area. Overall, one third of Muli’s population is Tibetan, around 28 per cent is Yi, 22 per cent Han, with a number of other minorities completing the census. Tibetans in Muli take advantage of this cultural trend and of the investments that go with: rebuilding of the main three Tibetan temples of Muli County, stupas and other Tibetan artifacts constructed near the mountain lakes… Other minorities, especially Yi people, are prone to leave the area in search for job, especially since state industries have been closed. If the mountain landscape is stupendous indeed, Muli township looks to the passer-by as a sad little place, cut off from the outside world during the rainy season from mid July till end of September.


Before 1949, Muli’s Grand Lama was the main political power in the area, a fact attested by Western travelers such as J. Rock and A. David-Neel. Muli housed three major Tibetan temples. In late July 2007, I went to one of these temples, Kangwu (Kulu in Tibetan language), and discovered the ruins of an imposing building burned down during the Cultural Revolution. Before this period, up to 550 monks were staying there. In the eighties, a small temple was built nearby, and 16 monks were living there at the time of my visit. They were in charge of supervising the rebirth a new, imposing Kangwu temple… This was the beginning of the second year of this large-scale endeavor. Tibetan craftsmen from neighboring Daocheng county had recently arrived. The structural work having been completed, it was now the turn of sculptors and painters to enter into action.

On this particular afternoon, the current Grand Lama of Muli was supervising the work.  I had the feeling of being at a special moment in time, standing between past and future, taken between the shadow of a temple existing no more and the mirage of a new one slowly coming to existence… These pictures testify to this enlightenment, to my sudden grasp of the impermanence of things.

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All pictures taken in July 2007

週三, 28 十二月 2011 17:19

Fashion Show in the Mountains of Yunnan

The Yi People (彝族) in Yongren County, Yunnan Provinve, annually organize a grand fashion show during the month of January. The fashion show begins when the women most renowned for their expertise in the art of embroidery walk and dance in a parade, to display both their embroidered costumes and dances. Later on, other women join them, while the men just watch on. When evening comes, unmarried youths go to dancing parties. The fashion show day is therefore a day of beauty contest and lovemaking.

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週二, 27 十二月 2011 00:00

The Festival of the Birth of the Prophet in Pi county, Sichuan

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The Festival of the Birth of the Prophet is one of the three most important Islamic festivals, it commemorates the birth and the death of the founder of Islam, Muhammad. On the 5th November 2006, the Festival of the Birth of the Prophet was held at the Pitong township mosque in Pi County, Sichuan. Before the festival, after the mosque's imam, Ma Rugang and the director of the management committee of the mosque, Ma Junru, have carried out prepatory arrangements for the festival, Muslims come to donate grains, oil, meat and money, and arrange for a groups of people to take responsibility for grinding the flour, buying certain items, frying flour-and-salt sesame oil cakes, cooking the meat and other dishes, the other odd jobs that the festival entails are all carried out by Muslim volunteers.

The Hui people see the different tasks surrounding the festival as good works, therefore, they often strive to outdo each other. Everyone takes part to decorate the gate, the main hall and the surroundings of the mosque with lanterns and streamers, and banners, the banners commemorate the calligraphy of Muhammad with Arabic writing, as well as incorporating slogans celebrating the festival. The festival normally lasts for two days, on the first day people come to the mosque in the evening to recite scriptures in praise of the Prophet, after the worship ceremony a symposium is held, the second day is a more formal commemoration. At the appointed time, the Muslims bathe and change their clothes, dressing up and congregating at the mosque to recite scripture, praise the Prophet and worship. The imam pronounces the main events in the life of Muhammad, his achievements and his moral character, as well as exciting historical tales about the hardships undergone in missionary work, of wisdom and bravery, of skill at debating and of war, instructing the Hui people not to forget the teachings of the Prophet, and to be good Muslims.

On this day Muslims also have to "taw/ba" (توبة rendered in Chinese as 討白 tǎobái), which means to repent. The Hui people believe: "Men are not sages or saints, how are they not to sin? To know thy sin and to correct it, that is the greatest of acts." (Chunqiu Zuozhuan: Xuangong Ernian). "Taw ba" consists of making up for their former misdeeds, asking God's forgiveness, promising not to continue in sin, and commiting oneself to this new course in life through good works. After the ritual, they dine together. Dozens of table laden with dishes are spread, everybody makes merry, in a feast together. As to those who had contributed to the meal by donating in the spirit of Niyyah (نیّة rendered 乜貼 niètiē in Chinese: the intention one evokes in his heart to do an act for the sake of Allah) but are unable to come themselves have to rely on friends, relatives and neighbours to bring a flour-and-salt cake for them to try1.

What makes the feast of the Prophet so special is that the people come together to praise the Prophet, the people donate things for a common goal and that the people eat together, which shows how united the Hui people are, and how they celebrate the festival imbued with the spirit of friendship. The Hui people of Pi County invite Muslims from the surroundings of Chengdu and even Aba Prefecture to celebrate the feast of the Prophet with them. As well as its ritual significance, this day is an opportunity for Muslims to interact with each other, the imams discuss theological issues and preaching methods with each other, and the Hui people wish one another well, and talk about all kinds of things, in an atmosphere of great joy. A group of students who, off their own backs, set up a Muslim student society at Sichuan University and Southwest University for Nationalities, volunteered to serve as stewards for the festival.

Translated from the Chinese by Conor Stuart, photos by Liang Zhun



1. Interestingly Chinese sources ascribe the origin of this flour and salt cake as what Abu Ayyub al-Ansari prepared for Muhammad when his house was chosen to host the Prophet on his arrival in Medina, and was even purportedly named by the Prophet as 油香 yóuxiāng , although this cake does not appear in English language versions of the life of the Prophet. For Chinese version of the origin of this cake see here.




週三, 21 十二月 2011 17:25

Napa Village

The district of “Shangri La” (formerly called Zhongdian, before a name more prone to attract tourism was adopted in 2001…) is located on the north of Yunnan province, on the southern side of the Tibetan Plateau. The district is located on the frontiers of Yunnan, Sichuan, and Tibet, with an altitude of about 3380 meters above sea level.

Besides a renowned temple and the ruins of another one, the township proper has not much to offer the passer-by. But its surroundings are full of stunning human and natural wonders. One of them might well be Napa village, about 12 km from the township. It is in the middle of a natural reserve, set up by the government in 1980. There are 41 families, farmers and hunters, totaling a little less than 300 inhabitants, whose houses are grouped together. A gate signals the entry to the village. The lake below it is called “Napa Sea” and is renowned for the back-neck cranes that spend the winter there. It is not even a lake actually, but rather a depression, totally filled with water during the rainy season.

The primary school in Napa village stops at the third grade. Volunteers, coming mainly from Shanghai, have been offering summer courses for a few years already. Whenever possible, teachers supported by outside funding try to offer courses during the year, so that children may get a more advanced education. The same volunteers’ team also offers physical check-ups and other services aimed at local, sustainable development.

Ascending the mountains that surround the village, visitors can discover the enchantment of Tibetan forests and pasture. Now more open to the outside world and mastering the Mandarin language, young villagers act as guides, slowly developing an “eco-tourism” from below. Still, the life is far from being rosy: young girls are still carrying heavy loads of wood in prevision of the harsh winter months. Though eco-tourism is on the rise, the illegal cutting of trees occurs on a large scale. Paradoxically, it is even on the rise, because of the boom on constructions in traditional Tibetan style coming from the rise in tourism activities. Like in the whole of southwest China, the model of development is still debated, and a choice has to be made between rapid enrichment and the preservation of resources that prove to be rare and precious, even in the privileged natural environment of Shangri-la.

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週三, 09 十一月 2011 11:51

Breathing and Painting

"What I try to paint is the very breathing that makes me paint." This is the way Benoit Vermander introduced his works during the opening of his exhibit at DPARK, Shanghai (November 5-30). The seventy ink and oil paintings gathered in this beautiful location were mainly organized around three topics: faces, birds and forest. But each time, explained Benoit, the underlying element was the breeze - the inner breeze that makes the face change and come anew to the light of the day; the breeze that supports the flight of the bird; the breeze that makes the forest palpitate and become the place where one wishes to wander and lose oneself.

Chinese paintings and oil paintings seemed to be melting into one, as the one and the same breath guides the hand that painted them, beyond differences in techniques and cultural undertones. The breath of the painter became the one inhaled by the visitors who had come to take new strength and inspiration in a show made even more poetic by the large windows of the main exhibit room, opening up on a landscape of high-rise buildings and slowly balancing bamboos....





週二, 14 九月 2010 12:37



在互聯網的搜索中,鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈小學是和法國文化年、和歐美國家的人類學聯系在一起的,是和繪畫攝影藝術展覽等聯系在一起的,也和我的藏區同行人梁准聯系在一起的。 在有關數字的記載中,羊圈小學隻有這麼幾項:在白烏鎮的面壩村,職工人數 6人。經營范圍是小學,注冊時間 1999年,校長,沙開元。然而,羊圈小學卻是中國第一個走向地球村的鄉村小學。

--- 作者 周渝霞,四川作家協會會員、詩人





鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈村地處閉塞偏遠的小涼山山區,是一個自稱為諾蘇的彝族村落。鹽源是我在70年代上山下鄉的地方,那裡是衛城羅加村,和羊圈村的直線距離為60公裡,車行距離為90公裡 。




在涼山州民族研究所副所長馬爾子的提議下,法國利氏學社學者魏明德(Benoit Vermander )博士、美國華盛頓翻譯片立大學郝瑞(Steven Harrell)教授、中央民族大學教授巴莫阿依博士、四川省民族類研究所李星星研究員、鹽源人大副主席馬維爾聯合發起籌集90多萬人民幣,在涼山州對外友好協會、鹽源縣縣委、縣政府、白烏鎮政府的支持下,為羊圈村修建了羊圈小學。






*2006.01.以羊圈的名義“羊圈烤肉” 在成都開張。就是每一位顧客要多付一塊錢,作為給遠在小涼山深處的鹽源縣白烏鎮羊圈村羊圈小學的捐款。















然后是更多的人來了 ,他們試圖從更加廣闊的角度去了解民情、考察民風。其實他們的目的都很簡單 ——使羊圈小學順利辦學,使羊圈村發生了巨大變化,變得越來越現代化、國際化,成了彝家名副其實的“地球村”。








辦一個學校對於我們這個社會來說已經不再是很困難的事情 ,關鍵在於堅持下去。魏明德和他的同仁們“不管多麼困難,我們都要堅持下去”。顯然這種決心和后來的許多困難聯系在了一起。







作為法國的漢學家、詩人、畫家、人類學、國際政治學學者魏明德(Benoit Vermander)博士,在過去的幾年中,為海內外帶來了“法國學者眼中的中國西部視野”,在這本書裡,





就這樣,魏明德先生完成了他從西方文化融入東方文化階梯 ,也在攀爬這個階梯的同時向世人闡釋了他為西部少數民族地區發起各種志願活動的人文關懷理念。


1999 年,幾乎與世隔絕的小村庄辦起了學校,打開了與世界之間的通道,此后,大量的志願者和國外訪問學者來到這個地方,並逐漸改變了小村的整個輪廓。2000年9月,羊圈小學成立,第一學年,學校計有130多名學生,至2007年9月,學校招收了270名學生。學校每人每學期收取50元注冊費,其余包括考試的費用便由學校包辦。在魏明德看來,並不完全免費的原因是:一項完全免費的服務在受惠者眼中很容易被貶低其重要性,反而會變相激發較多的缺勤率。





世界上還有很多的羊圈 ,哪一個羊圈都需要我們去關注,需要我們去扶助。關鍵在與我們的發現羊圈的能力、眼光和持久耐力。












盡管如此,我們看到的 還是一個被世界打開的“羊圈”。








在魏明德的書中,學校的建立,對羊圈究竟帶來了怎樣的影響,魏明德希望和讀者一起尋求答案,“應該有正面的東西,也有負面的東西。”他在書中寫到, “我們的原意是為了讓這個地方更富有生命力,但這樣一來是不是更導致村裡所有受過教育的年輕人為尋求工作而遠走他鄉?我們是否打開了潘多拉之盒?”


反思是必要的,尤其是在經歷了十年的風風雨雨之后,作為政治學家的名義的反思尤為深刻: “羊圈的變化,更多在於觀念的變化,他們知道了外面的世界,對金錢有了概念,所以外出打工去尋找更多賺錢的方法。”他們同時非常自卑,他們意識到自己被邊緣化。一個年輕人告訴魏明德:“活在大山裡,人生好痛苦。”而羊圈人的反思則更為強烈,外來的文化和理念對於本土的沖擊,現代文化對傳統文化的沖擊使得這種反思顯得尤為沉重和慘烈。

反思的痛苦程度則是魏明德先生所始料不及的。他作為地方發展的推動者,思考的問題卻遠遠比描述和記錄的困難得多—— 羊圈終究是要被打開的,不是自己就是外力,人們終究要走出羊圈,但“外出本身並無壞處,但是他們終將回家,回家之后,做什麼,這是個問題。”








“大氣!”記得這是我當時脫口而出的一句話。以我多年經營圖書的經驗,我的直覺告訴我,這是一本資料性豐厚 ,可讀性較強的人文地理叢書,當然也是一本非常好的人類學、社會學的著作。











首先 是扣准人文主題,准確地把握被攝者的目光和心靈。書中有大量的圖片是人物。心地善良的梁准,也是善解人意的梁准。這使得她能夠細致入微體驗到當地人的生存狀態和心理狀態,從而准確地把握被拍攝者的眼光所表達的內心感受。在“羊圈裡的小學生”一章中,梁准的圖片瞄准了孩子們自然、純真的笑容和天真活潑的本性,從這些孩子身上,看到的不再是一個封閉的彝寨、不再是一個遙遠的山村,而是一種希望、一種向上的感悟;而“病痛纏身”一章村民刻在臉上的苦痛與無奈讓人揪心;從事各種農事勞作的羊圈人的勞動場景,則讓我們聞到了來自土地的氣息;在畢摩深邃的眼裡,我們則讀到了來自遠古文明的痕跡和屬於靈魂的東西。
















如果說,在書中魏明德先生致力於羊圈的真實記錄,使我們讀到了羊圈的歷史、現狀和 人們走向世界的願望和理想,或者他們之中的無奈。那麼梁准則用圖片注解了羊圈的靈魂,使我們看到了真實的羊圈,真實的羊圈人和古老的羊圈文化。



如需購買《從羊圈小村到地球村》一書,請連系 梁准 Email住址會使用灌水程式保護機制。你需要啟動Javascript才能觀看它






週四, 01 十月 2009 01:23

Pingwu county after the earthquake

Today, most of the Qiang people live in the area of Wenchuan and Beichuan in northern Sichuan, near the epicentre of the great earthquake that shocked the whole region on May 12, 2008. Some of the great stone towers guarding the old villages collapsed. The human, economic and cultural damages were such that one could fear for the very survival of the Qiang.

In Pingwu County, one can still witness, standing side by side, the ruins of old houses and new construction funded by the State. Local authorities hope to build a tourist economy based on a standardized but more lucrative version of Qiang traditional culture.

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